Elijah Maritim Songok

Learn More
To determine the feasibility of using short-course zidovudine (ZDV) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a breastfeeding population in a rural area in Kenya, pregnant mothers attending clinics in seven health centers in western Kenya between 1996 and 1998 were requested to volunteer for participation in this(More)
Circulating strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit an extraordinary degree of genetic diversity and have been classified on the basis of relationships into distinct lineages called groups, types, subtypes, and subsubtypes. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are known to be a risk factor for HIV infection. To establish HIV-1 subtype(More)
Recently increased availability of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has mitigated HIV-1/AIDS prognoses especially in resource poor settings. The emergence of ART resistance-associated mutations from non-suppressive ART has been implicated as a major cause of ART failure. Reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)-resistance mutations among 12 non-subtype B(More)
The treatment of HIV-1 infection with antiretroviral drugs has greatly improved the survival of those who are infected. However, HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance are major challenges in patient management, especially in resource-poor countries. To evaluate HIV-1 genetic diversity and drug resistance-associated mutations among drug-naive patients in Kenya(More)
The genetic subtypes of HIV-1 circulating in northern Kenya have not been characterized. Here we report the partial sequencing and analysis of samples collected in the years 2003 and 2004 from 72 HIV-1-positive patients in northern Kenya, which borders Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. From the analysis of partial env sequences, it was determined that 50% were(More)
BACKGROUND Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased dramatically in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 560,000 people had access to ART by the end of 2011. This scaling up of ART has raised challenges to the Kenyan health system due to emergence of drug resistant viruses among those on treatment and possible onward transmission. To counter this, and(More)
To monitor the presence of genotypic HIV-1 variants circulating in eastern Cameroon, blood samples from 57 HIV-1-infected individuals attending 3 local health centers in the bordering rural villages with Central African Republic (CAR) were collected and analyzed phylogenetically. Out of the 40 HIV-1 strains with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)(More)
To identify novel biomarkers for HIV-1 resistance, including pathways that may be critical in anti-HIV-1 vaccine design, we carried out a gene expression analysis on blood samples obtained from HIV-1 highly exposed seronegatives (HESN) from a commercial sex worker cohort in Nairobi and compared their profiles to HIV-1 negative controls. Whole blood samples(More)
A switch of coreceptor usage from CCR5 to CXCR4 occurs in about half of HIV-1-infected individuals in the natural course of infection. To investigate whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) enhances the coreceptor switch of HIV-1, we genotypically analyzed the env-V3 amino acid sequences from 81 HIV-1-infected children in Kenya whose plasma samples were(More)
Eight genotypes of hepatitis B virus (A-H) and subgenotypes have been recognized worldwide. However, there is limited information on prevalent genotypes in many countries in Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in Kenya. Seropositive HBV blood samples from a blood donor setting were used in the study. HBV(More)