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We carry out a systematic study of existing visual CAPTCHAs based on distorted characters that are augmented with anti-segmentation techniques. Applying a systematic evaluation methodology to 15 current CAPTCHA schemes from popular web sites, we find that 13 are vulnerable to automated attacks. Based on this evaluation, we identify a series of(More)
We study the security and privacy of private browsing modes recently added to all major browsers. We first propose a clean definition of the goals of private browsing and survey its implementation in different browsers. We conduct a measurement study to determine how often it is used and on what categories of sites. Our results suggest that private browsing(More)
—Black-box web application vulnerability scanners are automated tools that probe web applications for security vulnerabilities. In order to assess the current state of the art, we obtained access to eight leading tools and carried out a study of: (i) the class of vulnerabilities tested by these scanners, (ii) their effectiveness against target(More)
—Web framing attacks such as clickjacking use iframes to hijack a user's web session. The most common defense, called frame busting, prevents a site from functioning when loaded inside a frame. We study frame busting practices for the Alexa Top-500 sites and show that all can be circumvented in one way or another. Some circumventions are browser-specific(More)
—CAPTCHAs, which are automated tests intended to distinguish humans from programs, are used on many web sites to prevent bot-based account creation and spam. To avoid imposing undue user friction, CAPTCHAs must be easy for humans and difficult for machines. However, the scientific basis for successful CAPTCHA design is still emerging. This paper examines(More)
We introduce Kamouflage: a new architecture for building theft-resistant password managers. An attacker who steals a laptop or cell phone with a Kamouflage-based password manager is forced to carry out a considerable amount of online work before obtaining any user credentials. We implemented our proposal as a replacement for the built-in Firefox password(More)
Over the last decade, it has become well-established that a captcha's ability to withstand automated solving lies in the difficulty of segmenting the image into individual characters. The standard approach to solving captchas automatically has been a sequential process wherein a segmentation algorithm splits the image into segments that contain individual(More)
Online accounts are inherently valuable resources---both for the data they contain and the reputation they accrue over time. Unsurprisingly, this value drives criminals to steal, or hijack, such accounts. In this paper we focus on manual account hijacking---account hijacking performed manually by humans instead of botnets. We describe the details of the(More)
—Captchas are designed to be easy for humans but hard for machines. However, most recent research has focused only on making them hard for machines. In this paper, we present what is to the best of our knowledge the first large scale evaluation of captchas from the human perspective, with the goal of assessing how much friction captchas present to the(More)
Websites present users with puzzles called CAPTCHAs to curb abuse caused by computer algorithms masquerading as people. While CAPTCHAs are generally effective at stopping abuse, they might impair website usability if they are not properly designed. In this paper we describe how we designed two new CAPTCHA schemes for Google that focus on maximizing(More)