Elias Woldegabriel

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Methods for identification of primary HIV infections seem increasingly important to understand pathogenesis, and to prevent transmission, which is particularly efficient during acute infection. Most current algorithms for HIV testing are based on detection of HIV antibodies and are unable to identify early infections before seroconversion. The efficiency of(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical laboratories in Botswana have relied entirely on the reference intervals for normal immunohaematological values provided by manufacturers' kits and textbooks. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine the means, medians, 2.5th and 97.5th percentile reference intervals, for normal immunohaematological values in healthy adults in(More)
We report the first case, to our knowledge, of antibody-negative human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C infection, which was identified during screening for acute HIV-1 infection in Botswana. Results of tests for HIV-1 antibodies were consistently negative, including rapid and regular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. The(More)
BACKGROUND Most knowledge of primary HIV-1 infection is based on subtype B studies, whereas the evolution of viral parameters in the early phase of HIV-1 subtype C infection is not well characterized. METHODS The kinetics of viral RNA, proviral DNA, CD4+ T-cell count, and subsets of CD4+ T cells expressing CCR5 or CXCR4 were characterized in 8 acute and(More)
BACKGROUND Aiming to answer the broad question "When does mutation occur?" this study examined the time of appearance, dominance, and completeness of in vivo Gag mutations in primary HIV-1 subtype C infection. METHODS A primary HIV-1C infection cohort comprised of 8 acutely and 34 recently infected subjects were followed frequently up to 500 days(More)
BACKGROUND Estimation of HIV incidence rates is important for timing interventions, planning prevention studies, and monitoring the epidemic. This requires accurate estimation of the "recency period" (also known as the "window period") between seroconversion and achievement of specific detectable levels of anti-HIV antibody titers, such as the standardized(More)
The evolution of proviral gp120 during the first year after seroconversion in HIV-1 subtype C infection was addressed in a case series of eight subjects. Multiple viral variants were found in two out of eight cases. Slow rate of viral RNA decline and high early viral RNA set point were associated with a higher level of proviral diversity from 0 to 200 days(More)
Methods A total of 42 subjects (8 acutely and 34 recently HIVinfected individuals with estimated time of seroconversion) were included. Gag quasispecies were analyzed by single-genome amplification/sequencing. Ten amino acid positions across Gag with the most frequent mutations were chosen for analysis. Mutations were analyzed at frequent time points(More)
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