Elias S J Arnér

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Thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase and NADPH, the thioredoxin system, is ubiquitous from Archea to man. Thioredoxins, with a dithiol/disulfide active site (CGPC) are the major cellular protein disulfide reductases; they therefore also serve as electron donors for enzymes such as ribonucleotide reductases, thioredoxin peroxidases (peroxiredoxins) and(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known mediators of intracellular signaling cascades. Excessive production of ROS may, however, lead to oxidative stress, loss of cell function, and ultimately apoptosis or necrosis. A balance between oxidant and antioxidant intracellular systems is hence vital for cell function, regulation, and adaptation to diverse growth(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis--infection with helminth parasites in the genus Schistosoma, including S. mansoni--is a widespread, devastating tropical disease affecting more than 200 million people. No vaccine is available, and praziquantel, the only drug extensively utilized, is currently administered more than 100 million people yearly. Because praziquantel(More)
Thioredoxin systems, involving redox active thioredoxins and thioredoxin reductases, sustain a number of important thioredoxin-dependent pathways. These redox active proteins support several processes crucial for cell function, cell proliferation, antioxidant defense and redox-regulated signaling cascades. Mammalian thioredoxin reductases are(More)
Thioredoxin (Trx), NADPH and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) comprise a thioredoxin system which exists in nearly all living cells. It functions in thiol-dependent thiol-disulfide exchange reactions crucial to control of the reduced intracellular redox environment, cellular growth, defense against oxidative stress or control of apoptosis and has multi-facetted(More)
The thioredoxin system is ubiquitous, providing reducing equivalents to essential biosynthetic enzymes like ribonucleotide reductase. It is essential for cellular redox regulation, control of oxidative stress, and protection against oxidative damage. This unit includes protocols for measuring thioredoxin or thioredoxin reductase in biological preparations(More)
Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid, exists naturally in all kingdoms of life as the defining entity of selenoproteins. Sec is a cysteine (Cys) residue analogue with a selenium-containing selenol group in place of the sulfur-containing thiol group in Cys. The selenium atom gives Sec quite different properties from Cys. The most obvious difference is(More)
Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a key selenoprotein antioxidant enzyme and a potential target for anti-cancer drugs. One potent inhibitor of TrxR is the gold (I) compound auranofin, which can trigger mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathways. The exact mechanism of apoptosis induction by auranofin is not yet clear, but there are indications that(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether the mean size of fat cells in either visceral or subcutaneous adipose tissue has an impact on the metabolic and inflammatory profiles in morbid obesity. In 80 morbidly obese women, mean visceral (omental) and subcutaneous fat cell sizes were related to in vivo markers of inflammation, glucose metabolism and(More)