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Using a sandwich-masked priming paradigm with faces, we report two ERP effects that appear to reflect different levels of subliminal face processing. These two ERP repetition effects dissociate in their onset, scalp topography, and sensitivity to face familiarity. The "early" effect occurred between 100 and 150 ms, was maximally negative-going over lateral(More)
We present an empirical Bayesian scheme for distributed multimodal inversion of electromagnetic forward models of EEG and MEG signals. We used a generative model with common source activity and separate error components for each modality. Under this scheme, the weightings of error for each modality, relative to source components, are estimated automatically(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission is implicated in cognitive and emotional processes and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. The use of positron emission tomography (PET) to measure ligand displacement has allowed estimation of endogenous dopamine release in the human brain; however, applying this methodology to assess central 5-HT release has proved(More)
Potentially dangerous stimuli are important contenders for the capture of visual-spatial attention, and it has been suggested that an evolved fear module is preferentially activated by stimuli that are fear relevant in a phylogenetic sense (e.g., snakes, spiders, angry faces). In this study, a visual search task was used to test this hypothesis by directly(More)
INTRODUCTION Resistance to antipsychotic treatment is a significant clinical problem in patients with schizophrenia with approximately 1 in 3 showing limited or no response to repeated treatments with antipsychotic medication. The neurobiological basis for treatment resistance is unknown but recent evidence implicates glutamatergic function in the anterior(More)
The aim of this fMRI study was to investigate whether spatial attention to the initial and/or repeated presentation of a stimulus is necessary to observe repetition-related modulations of the neural responses evoked by that stimulus. During each trial, two stimuli were presented simultaneously, one left and one right of fixation. During each block,(More)
Tobacco addiction is a global public health problem. Addiction to tobacco is thought to involve the effects of nicotine on the dopaminergic system. Only one study has previously investigated dopamine synthesis capacity in cigarette smokers. This study, exclusively in male volunteers, reported increased dopamine synthesis capacity in heavy smokers compared(More)
Around 30% of patients with schizophrenia show an inadequate response to antipsychotics-ie, treatment resistance. Neuroimaging studies can help to uncover the underlying neurobiological reasons for such resistance and identify these patients earlier. Additionally, studies examining the effect of clozapine on the brain can help to identify aspects of(More)
BACKGROUND The amygdala is a central node in the brain network that processes aversive emotions and is extensively innervated by dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurons. Alterations in DRN 5-HT1A receptor availability cause phenotypes characterized by fearful behavior in preclinical models. However, it is unknown whether(More)