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Massive stars end their short lives in spectacular explosions--supernovae--that synthesize new elements and drive galaxy evolution. Historically, supernovae were discovered mainly through their 'delayed' optical light (some days after the burst of neutrinos that marks the actual event), preventing observations in the first moments following the explosion.(More)
A pedagogical derivation is presented of the “fireball” model of γ-ray bursts, according to which the observable effects are due to the dissipation of the kinetic energy of a relativistically expanding wind, a “fireball.” The main open questions are emphasized, and key afterglow observations, that provide support for this model, are briefly discussed. The(More)
We show that the prompt and afterglow X-ray emission of GRB060218, as well as its early (t . 1 d) optical-UV emission, can be explained by a model in which a radiationmediated shock propagates through a compact progenitor star into a dense wind. The prompt thermal X-ray emission is produced in this model as the mildly relativistic shock, β ≈ 0.85 carrying(More)
It has recently been shown that the highest energy cosmic rays (CRs) may originate in the same cosmological objects producing γ-ray bursts. This model requires the presence of intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMF) to delay the arrival times of ∼ 10 eV CRs by 50 years or longer relative to the γ-rays, of an amplitude that is consistent with other(More)
We derive observational consequences of the hypothesis that cosmic rays (CR’s) of energy > 10eV originate in the same cosmological objects producing gamma-ray bursts (GRB’s). Inter-galactic magnetic fields ∼> 10 G are required in this model to allow CR’s to be observed continuously in time by producing energy dependent delays in the CR arrival times. This(More)