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The method for cell number measurement in monolayer cultures by crystal violet staining published recently by Gillies et al. (R. G. Gillies, N. Didier, M. Denton (1986) Anal. Biochem. 159, 109-113) was modified and significantly improved. The procedure was adapted for use in 96-well plates since the method is inherently very sensitive. Modifications allowed(More)
Thirty-seven matched cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples from 34 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients with suspected meningitis were analyzed for levels of HIV-1 RNA and markers of inflammation. Patients with tuberculous (n = 9) or cryptococcal (n = 6) meningitis had the highest CSF virus loads, which in many cases exceeded(More)
Fatigue is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is an important cause of disability. However, the cause of fatigue is poorly understood. This study aimed to describe the frequency and pattern of sleep disturbance in a group of outpatients with MS, and to investigate the relationship between sleep disturbance and fatigue. Sixty outpatients with MS completed(More)
INTRODUCTION Little is known about the extent and patterns of cannabis use in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS MS patients attending neurology outpatient clinics at two hospitals in London and one in Kent, UK completed a questionnaire. RESULTS Questionnaires were completed by 254/337 (75%) MS patients. Forty-three per cent had used cannabis(More)
BACKGROUND Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to effectively reduce anxiety, depression and pain in patients with chronic physical illnesses. OBJECTIVES We assessed the potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a specially adapted Skype distant-delivered mindfulness intervention, designed to reduce distress for people affected by(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate markers of axonal damage in CSF and serum of patients with different subtypes of MS in relation to measures of disease progression on MRI. METHODS In 51 patients with MS (21 relapsing-remitting, 20 secondary progressive, 10 primary progressive), levels of heavy and light neurofilaments (NfH and NfL) and antibodies to neurofilaments(More)
Axonal degeneration plays an important role in the accumulation of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Pathological studies have demonstrated axonal damage, particularly in areas of acute inflammation and demyelination, and in chronic lesions. Axonal loss and its progression, which is associated with neurological disability, has also been(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the spectrum of aetiologies, and distinguishing clinical and laboratory features, of meningeal infection in a community with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infection. SETTING A hospital serving mineworkers, originating from rural areas of Southern Africa. DESIGN Prospective cohort of 60 consecutive lumbar punctures(More)
This article reports a parallel survey of consultants working in the fields of neurology, rehabilitation and palliative medicine, and explores the interface between the three specialties in providing services for people with long-term neurological conditions. There was general agreement with respect to the core contributions offered by each specialty.(More)
Long-term neurological conditions (LTNCs) comprise a diverse set of conditions resulting from injury or disease of the nervous system that will affect an individual for life. Some 10 million people in the UK are living with a neurological condition which has a significant impact on their lives, and they make up 19% of hospital admissions. These guidelines(More)