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The method for cell number measurement in monolayer cultures by crystal violet staining published recently by Gillies et al. (R. G. Gillies, N. Didier, M. Denton (1986) Anal. Biochem. 159, 109-113) was modified and significantly improved. The procedure was adapted for use in 96-well plates since the method is inherently very sensitive. Modifications allowed(More)
OBJECTIVE The cause of axonal loss, an important contributor to disability in MS, is poorly understood. This study investigated whether progression in MS is associated with CSF antibodies to the 68-kd light neurofilament subunit (NF-L), an axonal cytoskeletal protein, and compared this with antibodies against tubulin and the heavy neurofilament subunit(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate markers of axonal damage in CSF and serum of patients with different subtypes of MS in relation to measures of disease progression on MRI. METHODS In 51 patients with MS (21 relapsing-remitting, 20 secondary progressive, 10 primary progressive), levels of heavy and light neurofilaments (NfH and NfL) and antibodies to neurofilaments(More)
Fatigue is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is an important cause of disability. However, the cause of fatigue is poorly understood. This study aimed to describe the frequency and pattern of sleep disturbance in a group of outpatients with MS, and to investigate the relationship between sleep disturbance and fatigue. Sixty outpatients with MS completed(More)
CONTEXT Palliative care is being advocated for noncancer patients but needs evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a new palliative care service for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS We used a randomized fast-track Phase II controlled trial. Patients in South East London who were(More)
This article reports a parallel survey of consultants working in the fields of neurology, rehabilitation and palliative medicine, and explores the interface between the three specialties in providing services for people with long-term neurological conditions. There was general agreement with respect to the core contributions offered by each specialty.(More)
Multiple sclerosis results in both physical and psychological disability but some patients have needs that are not adequately met by existing services. Our objective was to explore whether a new palliative care service improved outcomes for people severely affected by multiple sclerosis. A delayed intervention randomized controlled trial was undertaken with(More)
BACKGROUND No previous research exists specifically exploring the needs of those people severely affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people identified by the referring health or social care professional as being severely affected by their MS and informal carers, in order to explore their perceptions(More)
Thirty-seven matched cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples from 34 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients with suspected meningitis were analyzed for levels of HIV-1 RNA and markers of inflammation. Patients with tuberculous (n = 9) or cryptococcal (n = 6) meningitis had the highest CSF virus loads, which in many cases exceeded(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the spectrum of aetiologies, and distinguishing clinical and laboratory features, of meningeal infection in a community with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infection. SETTING A hospital serving mineworkers, originating from rural areas of Southern Africa. DESIGN Prospective cohort of 60 consecutive lumbar punctures(More)