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We have analyzed the plasminogen activator (PA) content of normal rodent mammary glands at different stages of the mammary life cycle and after exposing the animals to various hormones; we have also assessed the PA response of mammary explants to a variety of hormonal environments. Similar studies were performed on a limited number of primary mammary(More)
We have surveyed the early stages in the development and differentiation of cultured mouse embryos for plasminogen activator production. This enzyme is first detectable by the sixth equivalent gestation day. Thereafter, cultured blastocysts produce plasminogen activator with a biphasic time course: in the first phase, enzyme secretion rises to a maximum at(More)
The role of microenvironment interleukin 1 (IL-1) on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA)-induced carcinogenesis was assessed in IL-1-deficient mice, i.e., IL-1beta(-/-), IL-1alpha(-/-), IL-1alpha/beta(-/-) (double knockout), and mice deficient in the naturally occurring inhibitor of IL-1, the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). Tumors developed in all wild-type(More)
Plasminogen activator production by cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages can be modulated in vitro by low concentrations of various pharmacologically active molecules. Glucocorticoid hormones and their synthetic derivatives, as well as cholera toxin, colchicine, and vinblastine markedly inhibit production of this enzyme without affecting other important(More)
We have (a) screened a variety of cell lines and body fluids for plasminogen activators and (b) studied the activity of proteases bound to alpha2- macroglobulin after exposing the complexes to partial degradation and/or denaturing procedures to unmask proteolytic activity. The respective results show (a) that the plasminogen activators in urine and cell(More)
The association of controlled extracellular proteolysis, mediated by plasminogen activator, with embryonic tissue remodeling and cell migration was studied in the developing bursa of Fabriculus of quail and chick embryos. We found: that the specific activity of plasminogen activator in the bursa changes as a function of developmental age; that these changes(More)
The human epidermoid carcinoma HEp3 exhibits highly malignant growth in chicken embryos that disappears progressively in cell culture. When studied by clonal analysis, loss of tumorigenicity was apparent within 20 generations and essentially complete after 40 generations in culture; affected all clones; and occurred under conditions which excluded the(More)
The synthesis and secretion of plasminogen activator by cultured macrophages can be induced and stimulated by concanavalin A and by phorbol myristate acetate, and inhibited by such agents as glucocorticoids, mitotic inhibitors and compounds affecting cAMP metabolism. By the manipulation of stimulatory and inhibitory influences, enzyme production can be(More)
Purified human PMNs secrete plasminogen activator. This secretion is stimulated by Con A and low concentrations of PMA, and is inhibited by low concentrations of glucocorticoids, and by cAMP, actinomycin D, and cycloheximide. In contrast, the release of granule-bound enzymes, such as elastase, is achieved only at higher concentrations of PMA, and is not(More)