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We have surveyed the early stages in the development and differentiation of cultured mouse embryos for plasminogen activator production. This enzyme is first detectable by the sixth equivalent gestation day. Thereafter, cultured blastocysts produce plasminogen activator with a biphasic time course: in the first phase, enzyme secretion rises to a maximum at(More)
We have analyzed the plasminogen activator (PA) content of normal rodent mammary glands at different stages of the mammary life cycle and after exposing the animals to various hormones; we have also assessed the PA response of mammary explants to a variety of hormonal environments. Similar studies were performed on a limited number of primary mammary(More)
In culture, vascular smooth muscle cells grow and form a confluent monolayer of cells. Under appropriate conditions, regions of the monolayer can be induced to draw away from the substrate and form multicellular nodules. The ultrastructure of the cells in the nodules appears to be similar to that of differentiated smooth muscle cells. The process of(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene has been established. A total of 36,594 base pairs (bp) was sequenced; this included 32,720 bp from the site of initiation of transcription to the polyadenylation site, in addition to 3,530 and 344 bp of 5' and 3' flanking DNA, respectively. Thirteen intervening sequences divide(More)
This paper describes the growth of HEp-3, a human epidermoid carcinoma, in the chick embryo. When inoculated onto the chorioallantoic membrane, the tumor grows locally with a doubling time of 21 to 24 hr and disseminates widely in the embryo proper, metastasis to the lung and heart being especially prominent. The tumor secretes large amounts of plasminogen(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) includes a family of closely related genes; the two major agonistic proteins, IL-1α and IL-1β, are pleiotropic and affect mainly inflammation, immunity and hemopoiesis. The IL-1Ra antagonist is a physiological inhibitor of pre-formed IL-1. Recombinant IL-1α and IL-1β bind to the same receptors and induce the same biological functions.(More)
The human epidermoid carcinoma HEp3 exhibits highly malignant growth in chicken embryos that disappears progressively in cell culture. When studied by clonal analysis, loss of tumorigenicity was apparent within 20 generations and essentially complete after 40 generations in culture; affected all clones; and occurred under conditions which excluded the(More)
A technique is described for detecting fibrinolytic activity of single cells in culture. This method was applied to the analysis of rat ovarian granulosa cells. Cells obtained from follicules shortly before ovulation show high levels of fibrinolytic activity. This activity is plasminogen-dependent, indicating that it is due to plasminogen activator. The(More)
The role of microenvironment interleukin 1 (IL-1) on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA)-induced carcinogenesis was assessed in IL-1-deficient mice, i.e., IL-1beta(-/-), IL-1alpha(-/-), IL-1alpha/beta(-/-) (double knockout), and mice deficient in the naturally occurring inhibitor of IL-1, the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). Tumors developed in all wild-type(More)