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A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the impact of methicillin-resistance on mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A search of the MEDLINE database for studies published during the period of 1 January 1980 through 31 December 2000 and a bibliographic review identified English-language studies of S. aureus bacteremia. Studies were included if(More)
BACKGROUND Contact Precautions (CP) are a standard method for preventing patient-to-patient transmission of multiple drug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in hospital settings. With the ongoing worldwide concern for MDROs including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and broadened use of active surveillance programs, an increasing number of(More)
The impact of appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia on patient outcomes has not been clearly established. We assessed the effect of appropriate empirical therapy on in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS) among patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia. This was a retrospective cohort study of inpatients with(More)
BACKGROUND Health care-associated infections affect 1.7 million hospitalizations each year, but the clinical and economic costs attributable to these infections are poorly understood. Reliable estimates of these costs are needed to efficiently target limited resources for the greatest public health benefit. METHODS Hospital discharge records from the(More)
We assessed the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of patients co-colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) upon admission to the medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary-care facility between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003. Co-colonization was(More)
Quasi-experimental study designs, often described as nonrandomized, pre-post intervention studies, are common in the medical informatics literature. Yet little has been written about the benefits and limitations of the quasi-experimental approach as applied to informatics studies. This paper outlines a relative hierarchy and nomenclature of(More)
BACKGROUND Patient-to-patient transmission of nosocomial pathogens has been linked to transient colonization of health care workers, and studies have suggested that contamination of health care workers' clothing, including white coats, may be a vector for this transmission. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional study involving attendees of medical and(More)
Infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in hospitalized patients are becoming increasingly frequent despite extensive infection-control efforts. Infections with ARB are most common in the intensive care units of tertiary-care hospitals, but the underlying cause of the increases may be a steady increase in the number of asymptomatic carriers(More)
BACKGROUND Studies in the United States show that rural persons with HIV are more likely than their urban counterparts to be diagnosed at a late stage of infection, suggesting missed opportunities for HIV testing in rural areas. To inform discussion of HIV testing policies in rural areas, we generated nationally representative, population-based estimates of(More)
We performed a case-control study to evaluate the association between antibiotic use and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), matching for admission unit and time at risk for CDAD. A multivariable regression model showed that treatment with fluoroquinolones (odds ratio 12.7; 95% confidence interval 2.6 to 61.6) was the strongest risk factor for(More)