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Since the seminal works of Merkle and Damgård on the iteration of compression functions, hash functions were built from compression functions using the Merkle-Damgård construction. Recently, several flaws in this construction were identified, allowing for second pre-image attacks and chosen target pre-image attacks on such hash functions even when the(More)
In this paper we present a very practical ciphertext-only cryptanalysis of GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) encrypted communication, and various active attacks on the GSM protocols. These attacks can even break into GSM networks that use " unbreakable " ciphers. We first describe a ciphertext-only attack on A5/2 that requires a few dozen(More)