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We describe a new large-sized species of hypercarnivorous hyainailourine-Kerberos langebadreae gen. & sp. nov.-from the Bartonian (MP16) locality of Montespieu (Tarn, France). These specimens consist of a skull, two hemimandibles and several hind limb elements (fibula, astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsals, and phalanges). Size estimates suggest K.(More)
The interest in mammalian palaeohistology has increased dramatically in the last two decades. Starting in 1849 via descriptive approaches, it has been demonstrated that bone tissue and vascularisation types correlate with several biological variables such as ontogenetic stage, growth rate, and ecology. Mammalian bone displays a large variety of bone tissues(More)
Non-pathological densification (osteosclerosis) and swelling (pachyostosis) of bones are the main modifications affecting the skeleton of land vertebrates (tetrapods) that returned to water. However, a precise temporal calibration of the acquisition of such adaptations is still wanting. Here, we assess the timing of such acquisition using the aquatic sloth(More)
The gross morphology of the axial postcranium of Thalassocnus is presented here, completing the description of the skeleton of the genus. Thalassocnus is characterized by a low spinous process on C7, a cranially shifted position of the diaphragmatic vertebra, a great number of caudal vertebrae, the morphology of their transverse processes, and the(More)
Xenarthrans stand out among mammals for various reasons, one of them being their musculoskeletal postcranial specializations. Extant armadillos, anteaters, and sloths feature archetypical adaptations to digging and/or diverse arboreal lifestyles. Numerous extinct xenarthrans dramatically depart in size and morphology from their extant relatives, which has(More)
Thalassocnus is a genus of “ground sloths” known from Neogene deposits, for the great majority of specimens, of the Pisco Formation (Peru). Five species are recognized, their description being currently restricted, for the most part, to the skull, mandible, and dentition. The bones of the forelimb are here described, and compared among the species of(More)
The anatomy of the skeletal elements of the hind limb of Thalassocnus is described. This genus of “ground sloth” comprises five species represented by Neogene specimens from the coast of Peru and Chile, mostly found in the Pisco Formation. The hind limb of the genus Thalassocnus as a whole is characterized by a small iliac wing, a gracile femur with(More)
There are significant geographic gaps in our knowledge of marine mammal evolution because most fossils have been found and described from Northern Hemisphere localities and a few other high-latitude areas in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we describe fossil cetacean remains from five geological units in the South American tropics (Urumaco, Codore,(More)
How skeletal elements scale to size is a fundamental question in biology. While the external shape of long bones was intensively studied, an important component of their organization is also found in their less accessible inner structure. Here, we studied mid-diaphyseal properties of limb long bones, characterizing notably the thickness of their cortices(More)
The orientation of the semicircular canals of the inner ear in the skull of vertebrates is one of the determinants of the capacity of this system to detect a given rotational movement of the head. Past functional studies on the spatial orientation of the semicircular canals essentially focused on the lateral semicircular canal (LSC), which is supposedly(More)