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The prototypical photocatalyst TiO2 exists in different polymorphs, the most common forms are the anatase- and rutile-crystal structures. Generally, anatase is more active than rutile, but no consensus exists to explain this difference. Here we demonstrate that it is the bulk transport of excitons to the surface that contributes to the difference. Utilizing(More)
GaN nanowires (NWs) have been grown on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The nucleation process of GaN-NWs has been investigated in terms of nucleation density and wire evolution with time for a given set of growth parameters. The wire density increases rapidly with time and then saturates. The growth period until the(More)
Graphene has been used to explore the fascinating electronic properties of ideal two-dimensional carbon, and shows great promise for quantum device architectures. The primary method for isolating graphene, micromechanical cleavage of graphite, is difficult to scale up for applications. Epitaxial growth is an attractive alternative, but achieving large(More)
We demonstrated that platinum (Pt) oxygen-reduction fuel-cell electrocatalysts can be stabilized against dissolution under potential cycling regimes (a continuing problem in vehicle applications) by modifying Pt nanoparticles with gold (Au) clusters. This behavior was observed under the oxidizing conditions of the O2 reduction reaction and potential cycling(More)
In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used to investigate the effect of heating on an organo-Ge polymer/nanoparticle composite material containing 4-8 nm diameter alkyl-terminated Ge nanoparticles. The product was obtained from the reduction of GeCl4 with Na(naphthalide) with subsequent capping of the -Cl surface with n-butyl(More)
We use transmission electron microscopy observations to establish the parts of the phase diagram of nanometer sized Au-Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs) that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition and, hence, their exchange of semiconductor material with the NWs. We find that the phase diagram of the nanoscale drop(More)
Using transmission electron microscopy, we identify the temperature-dependent interaction pathway of carbon-supported Au nanoparticles. At low temperature (room temp. to 400 degrees C), Au nanoparticles predominantly interact by coalescence initiated by an atomic Au bridge. At high temperature (400-800 degrees C), the particles assemble into Au/C core-shell(More)
Intercalation of metal atoms is an established route for tuning the coupling of graphene to a substrate. The extension to reactive species such as oxygen would set the stage for a wide spectrum of interfacial chemistry. Here we demonstrate the controlled modification of a macroscopic graphene-metal interface by oxygen intercalation. The selective oxidation(More)
The ability to control the formation of interfaces between different materials has become one of the foundations of modern materials science. With the advent of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, low-dimensional equivalents of conventional interfaces can be envisioned: line boundaries separating different materials integrated in a single 2D sheet. Graphene and(More)
We report on the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical performance of novel, ultrathin Pt monolayer shell-Pd nanowire core catalysts. Initially, ultrathin Pd nanowires with diameters of 2.0 ± 0.5 nm were generated, and a method has been developed to achieve highly uniform distributions of these catalysts onto the Vulcan XC-72 carbon support.(More)