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1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)₂D₃), a crucial regulator of calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, has important physiological effects on growth and differentiation in a variety of malignant and non-malignant cells. Synthetic structural hormone analogues, with lower hypercalcemic side effects, are currently under clinical investigation. Sphingolipids appear to(More)
The dimerization of doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and their 4-demethoxy, 4'-epi, and 4'-deoxy analogues was studied spectrophotometrically. Self-association was found to be influenced by buffer composition and ionic strength. Kd values were 1.3 X 10(4) and 2.3 X 10(4) M-1 for doxorubicin and daunorubicin, respectively, and ranged from 3.8 X 10(3) to 6.1 X(More)
Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is a metalloprotease that cleaves the synaptic protein VAMP/synaptobrevin, leading to focal epilepsy. Although this model is widely used in rats, the time course and spatial specificity of TeNT proteolytic action have not been precisely defined. Here we have studied the biochemical, electrographic, and anatomic characteristics of(More)
A classical example of age-dependent plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, triggered by monocular deprivation (MD). Sensitivity of cortical circuits to a brief period of MD is maximal in juvenile animals and downregulated in adult age. It remains unclear whether a reduced potential for morphological remodeling underlies this downregulation of(More)
Epilepsy is characterized by impaired circuit function and a propensity for spontaneous seizures, but how plastic rearrangements within the epileptic focus trigger cortical dysfunction and hyperexcitability is only partly understood. Here we have examined alterations in sensory processing and the underlying biochemical and neuroanatomical changes in tetanus(More)
In chronic neurodegenerative diseases associated with aggregates of misfolded proteins (such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion disease), there is an early degeneration of presynaptic terminals prior to the loss of the neuronal somata. Identifying the mechanisms that govern synapse degeneration is of paramount importance, as cognitive decline is strongly(More)
In 18 patients with 19 RO, 9 hypervascularity and hypovascularity was identified in 9 and 10 RO, respectively, in the cortico-medullary phase (CMP). Hypervascular RO showed increased density in the CMP (151.4±38.5 HU) and a gradual wash-out in the nephrographic phase (133.8±34.6 HU) and excretory phase (79±23 HU). Hypovascular RO showed increased density in(More)
Glioblastomas are largely unresponsive to all available treatments and there is therefore an urgent need for novel therapeutics. Here we have probed the antineoplastic effects of a bacterial protein toxin, the cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), in the syngenic GL261 glioma cell model. CNF1 produces a long-lasting activation of Rho GTPases, with(More)
BACKGROUND Glioblastomas are the most aggressive type of brain tumor. A successful treatment should aim at halting tumor growth and protecting neuronal cells to prevent functional deficits and cognitive deterioration. Here, we exploited a Rho GTPase-activating bacterial protein toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), to interfere with glioma cell(More)