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Energy transfer from light-harvesting carotenoids to chlorophyll is common in photosynthesis, but such antenna pigments have not been observed in retinal-based ion pumps and photoreceptors. Here we describe xanthorhodopsin, a proton-pumping retinal protein/carotenoid complex in the eubacterium Salinibacter ruber. The wavelength dependence of the rate of(More)
To explore the role of Arg82 in the catalysis of proton transfer in bacteriorhodopsin, we replaced Arg82 with Lys, which is also positively charged at neutral pH but has an intrinsic pKa of about 1.7 pH units lower than that of Arg. In the R82K mutant expressed in Halobacterium salinarium, we found the following: (1) The pKa of the purple-to-blue transition(More)
Homologous to bacteriorhodopsin and even more to proteorhodopsin, xanthorhodopsin is a light-driven proton pump that, in addition to retinal, contains a noncovalently bound carotenoid with a function of a light-harvesting antenna. We determined the structure of this eubacterial membrane protein-carotenoid complex by X-ray diffraction, to 1.9-A resolution.(More)
We show that salinixanthin, the light-harvesting carotenoid antenna of xanthorhodopsin, can be reconstituted into the retinal protein from Gloeobacter violaceus expressed in Escherichia coli. Reconstitution of gloeobacter rhodopsin with the carotenoid is accompanied by characteristic absorption changes and the appearance of CD bands similar to those(More)
In xanthorhodopsin, a retinal protein-carotenoid complex of Salinibacter ruber, the carotenoid salinixanthin functions as a light-harvesting antenna in supplying additional excitation energy for retinal isomerization and proton transport. Another retinal protein, archaerhodopsin, has been shown to contain a carotenoid, bacterioruberin, but without an(More)
Xanthorhodopsin of the extremely halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber represents a novel antenna system. It consists of a carbonyl carotenoid, salinixanthin, bound to a retinal protein that serves as a light-driven transmembrane proton pump similar to bacteriorhodopsin of archaea. Here we apply the femtosecond transient absorption technique to reveal the(More)
The cell membrane of Salinibacter ruber contains xanthorhodopsin, a light-driven transmembrane proton pump with two chromophores: a retinal and the carotenoid, salinixanthin. Action spectra for transport had indicated that light absorbed by either is utilized for function. If the carotenoid is an antenna in this protein, its excited state energy has to be(More)
The pH dependence of the rate constant of dark adaptation (thermal isomerization from all-trans- to 13-cis-bR) drastically changes when Arg82 of bacteriorhodopsin is replaced by an alanine. In the wild type (WT) the rate decreases sharply between pH 2.5 and pH 5. In R82A the sharp decrease is shifted to pH > 7. This correlates with the shift in the pK of(More)
The factors determining the pH dependence of the formation and decay of the O photointermediate of the bacteriorhodopsin (bR) photocycle were investigated in the wild-type (WT) pigment and in the mutants of Glu-194 and Glu-204, key residues of the proton release group (PRG) in bR. We have found that in the WT the rate constant of O --> bR transition(More)
Proteorhodopsin, a retinal protein of marine proteobacteria similar to bacteriorhodopsin of the archaea, is a light-driven proton pump. Absorption of a light quantum initiates a reaction cycle (turnover time of ca. 50 ms), which includes photoisomerization of the retinal from the all-trans to the 13-cis form and transient deprotonation of the retinal Schiff(More)