Eleni Nastouli

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Optimal immune activation of naïve CD8 T cells requires signal 1 mediated by the T cell receptor, signal 2 mediated by co-stimulation and signal 3 provided by pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the potential for signal 3 cytokines to rescue anti-viral responses in functionally exhausted T cells has not been defined. We investigated the effect of using(More)
OBJECTIVE An epidemic of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men is occurring in urban centers in Western Europe and the United States. Early diagnosis and treatment of HCV results in improved sustained virological response rates. This study compared the sensitivity of reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) versus(More)
Digital PCR (dPCR) is being increasingly used for the quantification of sequence variations, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), due to its high accuracy and precision in comparison with techniques such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) and melt curve analysis. To develop and evaluate dPCR for SNP detection using DNA, RNA, and clinical samples, an(More)
Performing nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) in digital format using limiting dilution provides potential advantages that have recently been demonstrated with digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR). Key benefits that have been claimed are the ability to quantify nucleic acids without the need of an external calibrator and a greater resistance(More)
A novel betacoronavirus associated with lethal respiratory and renal complications was recently identified in patients from several countries in the Middle East. We report the deep genome sequencing of the virus directly from a patient's sputum sample. Our high-throughput sequencing yielded a substantial depth of genome sequence assembly and showed the(More)
MOTIVATION An accurate genome assembly from short read sequencing data is critical for downstream analysis, for example allowing investigation of variants within a sequenced population. However, assembling sequencing data from virus samples, especially RNA viruses, into a genome sequence is challenging due to the combination of viral population diversity(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in many parts of the developing world. It is responsible for both sporadic infections and large scale epidemics and may be associated with significant mortality during pregnancy. Over the past two decades many serological and nucleic acid based diagnostic tests for HEV have been developed,(More)
BACKGROUND Early diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-infected patients has significant implications for patient management. However, the currently recommended serological screening strategy for identifying such patients could be improved. Little is known about the performance of routine antibody-only tests, compared with newer serological(More)
We report the molecular investigations of a large influenza A(H3N2) outbreak, in a season characterised by sharp increase in influenza admissions since December 2016. Analysis of haemagglutinin (HA) sequences demonstrated co-circulation of multiple clades (3C.3a, 3C.2a and 3C.2a1). Most variants fell into a novel subclade (proposed as 3C.2a2); they(More)
AIM The utility of noninvasive serum markers to longitudinally monitor liver fibrosis is not established. METHODS A total of 70 patients with chronic hepatitis C who had previously failed antiviral therapy were randomized to receive pegylated interferon with or without silymarin for 24 months. Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) tests (hyularonic acid, terminal(More)