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OBJECTIVE An epidemic of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men is occurring in urban centers in Western Europe and the United States. Early diagnosis and treatment of HCV results in improved sustained virological response rates. This study compared the sensitivity of reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) versus(More)
Optimal immune activation of naïve CD8 T cells requires signal 1 mediated by the T cell receptor, signal 2 mediated by co-stimulation and signal 3 provided by pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the potential for signal 3 cytokines to rescue anti-viral responses in functionally exhausted T cells has not been defined. We investigated the effect of using(More)
A novel betacoronavirus associated with lethal respiratory and renal complications was recently identified in patients from several countries in the Middle East. We report the deep genome sequencing of the virus directly from a patient's sputum sample. Our high-throughput sequencing yielded a substantial depth of genome sequence assembly and showed the(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can transmit the infection to their infants, screening of patients and appropriate interventions reduce vertical transmission. This audit was conducted to assess adherence to the national guidelines for management of HBV infection in pregnancy. METHODS A retrospective audit was conducted on(More)
Performing nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) in digital format using limiting dilution provides potential advantages that have recently been demonstrated with digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR). Key benefits that have been claimed are the ability to quantify nucleic acids without the need of an external calibrator and a greater resistance(More)
Digital PCR (dPCR) is being increasingly used for the quantification of sequence variations, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), due to its high accuracy and precision in comparison with techniques such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) and melt curve analysis. To develop and evaluate dPCR for SNP detection using DNA, RNA, and clinical samples, an(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in many parts of the developing world. It is responsible for both sporadic infections and large scale epidemics and may be associated with significant mortality during pregnancy. Over the past two decades many serological and nucleic acid based diagnostic tests for HEV have been developed,(More)
MOTIVATION An accurate genome assembly from short read sequencing data is critical for downstream analysis, for example allowing investigation of variants within a sequenced population. However, assembling sequencing data from virus samples, especially RNA viruses, into a genome sequence is challenging due to the combination of viral population diversity(More)