Eleni Bitziou

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Electrospray ionization (ESI) is extensively used in the analysis of biological compounds; yet some fundamental properties of this technique are not completely understood. It is widely recognized that care should be exercised when noncovalent complexes are being studied by ESI, since weak noncovalent binding can be broken or formed during the desolvation(More)
This paper describes the use of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in the tip generation/substrate collection (TG/SC), or feedback, mode and substrate generation/tip collection (SG/TC) mode to measure homogeneous kinetics in the catalytic EC' process. Theoretical analyses of both configurations have been developed numerically to allow the optimal(More)
The application of fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to quantify three-dimensional pH gradients near electrode surfaces is described. The methodology utilizes a trace quantity of a fluorescent dye, fluorescein, in solution, which fluoresces strongly above pH 6.5, to map the pH adjacent to various ultramicroelectrodes undergoing(More)
The electrochemical measurement of dopamine (DA), in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4), with a limit of detection (LOD) of ∼5 pM in 50 μL (∼ 250 attomol) is achieved using a band electrode comprised of a sparse network of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), which covers <1% of the insulating substrate. The SWNT electrodes are deployed as(More)
Real-time simultaneous detection of changes in pH and levels of histamine over the oxyntic glands of guinea pig stomach have been investigated. An iridium oxide pH microelectrode was used in a potentiometric mode to record the pH decrease associated with acid secretion when the sensor approached the isolated tissue. A boron-doped diamond (BDD)(More)
A novel electrochemical approach to the direct detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), in aqueous solutions, covering a wide pH range (acid to alkali), is described. In brief, a dual band electrode device is employed, in a hydrodynamic flow cell, where the upstream electrode is used to controllably generate hydroxide ions (OH(-)), which flood the downstream(More)
In order to produce polycrystalline oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes suitable for electroanalysis (i.e., widest solvent window, lowest capacitive currents, stable and reproducible current responses, and capable of demonstrating fast electron transfer) for outer sphere redox couples, the following factors must be considered. The(More)
The requirement for electrical power is a major limitation in the development of biosensors for in-body applications. This paper considers motion powered energy harvesting devices for in-body use, showing that power levels are unlikely to exceed a few microwatts for devices of acceptable size. As a low power sensor, we are developing pH detectors based on(More)
Foodborne illness presents a public health challenge in USA. There is an urgent need for the federal government and food industries to expand efforts to prevent any food contamination that potentially could be harmful to human health. The Food Safety Laboratory (FSL), ARS, USDA, is one of the leading laboratories for the development of optoelec-tronic(More)
A novel electrochemical approach to modifying aqueous solution pH in the vicinity of a detector electrode in order to optimize the electrochemical measurement signal is described. A ring disk electrode was employed where electrochemical decomposition of water on the ring was used to generate a flux of protons which adjusts the local pH controllably and(More)