Elene Clemens

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Indigenous populations, including Indigenous Australians, are highly susceptible to severe influenza disease and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We studied immune and genetic factors that could predicate severe influenza disease in Indigenous Australians enrolled in the LIFT study: looking into influenza T-cell immunity. To examine CD8(+) T-cell(More)
BACKGROUND The measurement of serum hepcidin, a peptide hormone that regulates iron metabolism, is clinically important to the understanding of iron homeostasis in health and disease. To date, the quantification of serum hepcidin levels by conventional immunological detection methods has proven problematic due to challenges in obtaining high quality(More)
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite new strain-specific vaccines being available annually. As IAV-specific CD8(+) T cells promote viral control in the absence of neutralizing antibodies, and can mediate cross-reactive immunity toward distinct IAVs to drive rapid recovery from both mild and severe influenza(More)
Memory CD8(+)T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for antigenic peptides derived from internal viral proteins confer broad protection against distinct strains of influenza A virus (IAV). However, immune efficacy can be undermined by the emergence of escape mutants. To determine how T-cell receptor (TCR) composition relates to IAV epitope variability, we used ex(More)
The characteristics of the TCR repertoire expressed by epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells can be an important determinant of the quality of immune protection against virus infection. Most studies of epitope-specific TCR repertoires focus solely on an analysis of TCR β-chains, rather than the combined TCRαβ heterodimers that confer specificity. Hence, the(More)
UNLABELLED Novel influenza viruses often cause differential infection patterns across different age groups, an effect that is defined as heterogeneous demographic susceptibility. This occurred during the A/H2N2 pandemic, when children experienced higher influenza attack rates than adults. Since the recognition of conserved epitopes across influenza subtypes(More)
T cells are defined by a heterodimeric surface receptor, the T cell receptor (TCR), that mediates recognition of pathogen-associated epitopes through interactions with peptide and major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs). TCRs are generated by genomic rearrangement of the germline TCR locus, a process termed V(D)J recombination, that has the potential to(More)
The Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) antigen is expressed in solid and hematological malignancies, but not healthy tissues, making it a promising target for cancer immunotherapies. Immunodominant WT1 epitopes, the native HLA-A2/WT1126-134 (RMFPNAPYL) (HLA-A2/RMFPNAPYL epitope (WT1A)) and its modified variant YMFPNAPYL (HLA-A2/YMFPNAPYL epitope (WT1B)), can induce(More)
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are key regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. Mice lacking functional SOCS4 are hypersusceptible to primary infection with influenza A virus (IAV), displaying dysregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the lungs, delayed viral clearance and impaired trafficking of(More)
CD27 is a co-stimulatory immune-checkpoint receptor, constitutively expressed on a broad range of T-cells (αβ and γδ), NK-cells and B-cells. Ligation of CD27 with CD70 results in potent co-stimulatory effects. In mice, co-stimulation of CD8+ T-cells through CD27 promotes immune activation and enhances primary, secondary, memory and recall responses towards(More)
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