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We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica). We show that a relatively recent (>50 million years ago) genome-wide duplication (GWD) has resulted in the transition from nine ancestral chromosomes to 17 chromosomes in the Pyreae. Traces of older GWDs partly support the monophyly of the ancestral paleohexaploidy(More)
Apple ( Malus x domestica Borkh.) sequences sharing homology with known resistance genes were cloned using a PCR-based approach with degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed on conserved regions of the nucleotide-binding site (NBS). Sequence analysis of the amplified fragments indicated the presence of at least 27 families of NBS-containing genes in(More)
Fire blight is the most important bacterial disease in apple (Malus ×  domestica) and pear (Pyrus communis) production. Today, the causal bacterium Erwinia amylovora is present in many apple- and pear-growing areas. We investigated the natural resistance of the wild apple Malus ×  robusta 5 against E. amylovora, previously mapped to linkage group 3. With a(More)
The Malus–Venturia inaequalis interaction is the most studied plant–pathogen interaction involving a woody species. Besides the cloning of an apple scab resistance gene HcrVf2, several sequences have been recently identified that are modulated after pathogen recognition in Vf-resistant genotypes. Among these, there is a putative leucine-rich repeat(More)
The aroma trait in apple is a key factor for fruit quality strongly affecting the consumer appreciation, and its detection and analysis is often an extremely laborious and time consuming procedure. Molecular markers associated to this trait can to date represent a valuable selection tool to overcome these limitations. QTL mapping is the first step in the(More)
Fire blight, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is the most important bacterial disease affecting apple (Malus × domestica) and pear (Pyrus communis) production. The use of antibiotic treatment, though effective to some degree, is forbidden or strictly regulated in many European countries, and hence an alternative means of control is(More)
‘Antonovka’ has long been recognised as a major source of scab (Venturia inaequalis) resistance useful for apple breeding worldwide. Both major gene resistances in the form of the Rvi10 and Rvi17 and quantitative resistance, collectively identified as VA, have been identified in different accessions of ‘Antonovka’. Most of the ‘Antonovka’ scab resistance(More)
Erwinia amylovora is the pathogen which incites fire blight - the most devastating bacterial disease affecting pome fruit production worldwide. So far, only one functionally proven gene for resistance to this disease has been reported in Malus, even though several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified. Since some highly aggressive strains are(More)
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