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The efficiency of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in higher plants faces significant limitations due to the oxygenase activity of the enzyme Rubisco, particularly under warmer temperatures or water stress. A drop in atmospheric CO(2) and rise in O(2) as early as 300 mya provided selective pressure for the evolution of mechanisms to concentrate CO(2)(More)
An important adaptation to CO2-limited photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae and some plants was development of CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCM). Evolution of a CCM occurred many times in flowering plants, beginning at least 15-20 million years ago, in response to atmospheric CO2 reduction, climate change, geological trends, and evolutionary(More)
Kranz anatomy, with its separation of elements of the C4 pathway between two cells, has been an accepted criterion for function of C4 photosynthesis in terrestrial plants. However, Bienertia cycloptera (Chenopodiaceae), which grows in salty depressions of Central Asian semi-deserts, has unusual chlorenchyma, lacks Kranz anatomy, but has photosynthetic(More)
The terrestrial plant Bienertia cycloptera has been shown to accomplish C(4) photosynthesis within individual chlorenchyma cells by spatially separating the phases of carbon assimilation into distinct peripheral and central compartments. In this study, anatomical, physiological, and biochemical techniques were used to determine how this unique(More)
While malate and fumarate participate in a multiplicity of pathways in plant metabolism, the function of these organic acids as carbon stores in C(3) plants has not been deeply addressed. Here, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants overexpressing a maize (Zea mays) plastidic NADP-malic enzyme (MEm plants) were used to analyze the consequences of(More)
Critical to defining photosynthesis in C(4) plants is understanding the intercellular and intracellular compartmentation of enzymes between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in the leaf. This includes enzymes of the C(4) cycle (including three subtypes), the C(3) pathway and photorespiration. The current state of knowledge of this compartmentation is a(More)
Most species of the genus Salsola (Chenopodiaceae) that have been examined exhibit C4 photosynthesis in leaves. Four Salsola species from Central Asia were investigated in this study to determine the structural and functional relationships in photosynthesis of cotyledons compared to leaves, using anatomical (Kranz versus non-Kranz anatomy, chloroplast(More)
In subfamily Salsoloideae (family Chenopodiaceae) most species are C4 plants having terete leaves with Salsoloid Kranz anatomy characterized by a continuous dual chlorenchyma layer of Kranz cells (KCs) and mesophyll (M) cells, surrounding water storage and vascular tissue. From section Coccosalsola sensu Botschantzev, leaf structural and photosynthetic(More)
Leaf anatomy, stomatal density, and leaf conductance were studied in 10 species of Spartina (Poaceae) from low versus high salt marsh, and freshwater habitats. Internal structure, external morphology, cuticle structure, and stomatal densities were studied with light and electron microscopy. Functional significance of leaf structure was examined by measures(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Cleomaceae is one of 19 angiosperm families in which C(4) photosynthesis has been reported. The aim of the study was to determine the type, and diversity, of structural and functional forms of C(4) in genus Cleome. Methods Plants of Cleome species were grown from seeds, and leaves were subjected to carbon isotope analysis, light and(More)