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Besides their role as a source of amino acids for Bacillus subtilis, exogenous peptides play important roles in the signalling pathways leading to the development of competence and sporulation. B.subtilis has three peptide transport systems all belonging to the ATP-binding cassette family, a dipeptide permease (Dpp) and two oligopeptide permeases (Opp and(More)
CodY is a global regulator of transcription in gram-positive bacteria. It represses during growth genes required for adaptation to nutrient limitation, including virulence genes in some human pathogens. CodY activity is regulated by GTP and branched chain amino acids, metabolites whose intracellular concentrations drop as cells enter stationary phase.(More)
CodY is a GTP sensor that represses transcription of early stationary phase and sporulation genes in Bacillus subtilis. As nutrients become limiting, GTP levels fall and CodY-mediated repression is relieved. Crystals of CodY have been grown in the presence and absence of GTP from sodium citrate buffered solutions containing lithium sulfate and diffraction(More)
Following asymmetric cell division during spore formation in Bacillus subtilis, a forespore expressed membrane protein SpoIIQ, interacts across an intercellular space with a mother cell-expressed membrane protein, SpoIIIAH. Their interaction can serve as a molecular "ratchet" contributing to the migration of the mother cell membrane around that of the(More)
The GAF domain is a simple module widespread in proteins of diverse function, including cell signalling proteins and transcription factors. Its structure, typically spanning 150 residues, has three tiers: a basal layer of two or more alpha-helices, a middle layer of beta-pleated sheet and a top layer formed by segments of the polypeptide that connect(More)
Escherichia coli (E. coli) remains the most commonly used host for recombinant protein expression. It is well known that a variety of experimental factors influence the protein production level as well as the solubility profile of over-expressed proteins. This becomes increasingly important for optimizing production of protein complexes using co-expression(More)
Extracellular glutamyl endopeptidase from Bacillus intermedius (BIEP) is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease which cleaves the peptide bond on the carboxyl side of glutamic acid. Its three-dimensional structure was determined for C222(1) and C2 crystal forms of BIEP to 1.5 and 1.75 A resolution, respectively. The topology of BIEP diverges from the most(More)
Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis begins with an asymmetric cell division, following which differential gene expression is established by alternative compartment-specific RNA polymerase σ factors. The spoIISAB operon of B. subtilis was identified as a locus whose mutation leads to increased activity of the first sporulation-specific sigma factor, σ(F).(More)
Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis begins with an asymmetric cell division producing two genetically identical cells with different fates. SpoIIE is a membrane protein that localizes to the polar cell division sites where it causes FtsZ to relocate from mid-cell to form polar Z-rings. Following polar septation, SpoIIE establishes compartment-specific gene(More)