Mammalian Vangl1 and Vangl2 are highly conserved membrane proteins that have evolved from a single ancestral protein Strabismus/Van Gogh found in Drosophila. Mutations in the Vangl2 gene cause a neural tube defect (craniorachischisis) characteristic of the looptail (Lp) mouse. Studies in model organisms indicate that Vangl proteins play a key developmental… (More)
The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway controls multiple cellular processes during vertebrate development. Recently the PCP pathway was implicated in ciliogenesis and in ciliary function. The primary cilium is an apically projecting solitary organelle that is generated via polarized intracellular trafficking. Because it acts as a signaling nexus, defects in… (More)
In the past two years, studies of Stbm genes (also known as Vangl2) and the proteins that they encode in mice, flies, frogs and fish have shown that they have a crucial role in regulating planar cell polarity and convergent extension movements. Combined genetic and biochemical analyses have pointed to signaling pathways where Stbm (Vangl2) proteins might… (More)
Loop-tail (Lp) mice show a very severe neural tube defect, craniorachischisis, which is caused by mis-sense mutations in the Vangl2 gene. The membrane protein Vangl2 belongs to a highly conserved group of proteins that regulate planar polarity in certain epithelia, and that are also important for convergent extension movements during gastrulation and… (More)
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a heterogeneous group of common severe congenital anomalies which affect 1-2 infants per 1000 births. Most genetic and/or environmental factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of human NTDs are unknown. Recently, however, pathogenic mutations of VANGL1 and VANGL2 genes have been associated with some cases of human NTDs.… (More)
Vangl2 plays a critical role in the establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP). Previously, we detected expression of Vangl2 in the developing retina during late embryogenesis, which led us to investigate the possible role of Vangl2-mediated PCP signaling in eye development. We have generated a Vangl2(BGeo) knock-in mouse allowing us to evaluate Vangl2… (More)
In the paper titled " Endolymphatic Sac Enlargement in a Girl with a Novel Mutation for Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Severe Deafness, " all the authors' names and surnames are in a reverse order.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis refers to a set of particular histopathologic lesions in which steroid-resistant podocyte injury leads to patchy adhesions between the glomerular tuft and Bowman's capsule, followed by progressive glomerulosclerosis and proteinuric renal failure. Because of the nonspecific nature of this lesion, it has been difficult to… (More)