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PAX2 mutations cause renal-coloboma syndrome (RCS), a rare multi-system developmental abnormality involving optic nerve colobomas and renal abnormalities. End-stage renal failure is common in RCS, but the mechanism by which PAX2 mutations lead to renal failure is unknown. PAX2 is a member of a family of developmental genes containing a highly conserved(More)
Mammalian Vangl1 and Vangl2 are highly conserved membrane proteins that have evolved from a single ancestral protein Strabismus/Van Gogh found in Drosophila. Mutations in the Vangl2 gene cause a neural tube defect (craniorachischisis) characteristic of the looptail (Lp) mouse. Studies in model organisms indicate that Vangl proteins play a key developmental(More)
In the absence of mutant genes encoding components of the podocyte slit diaphragm, about 30–50 % of children with primary glucocorticoid-resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) develop recurrent proteinuria and slowly progressive FSGS lesions following renal transplantation. Recurrence of FSGS in the allograft strongly suggests a circulating(More)
Hes1 is a mammalian basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor that inhibits neuronal differentiation together with corepressors of the Groucho (Gro)/Transducin-like Enhancer of split (TLE) family. The interaction of Hes1 with Gro/TLE is mediated by a WRPW tetrapeptide present in all Hairy/Enhancer of split (Hes) family members. In contrast to Hes1,(More)
The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway controls multiple cellular processes during vertebrate development. Recently the PCP pathway was implicated in ciliogenesis and in ciliary function. The primary cilium is an apically projecting solitary organelle that is generated via polarized intracellular trafficking. Because it acts as a signaling nexus, defects in(More)
The acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACDs) are a family of mitochondrial enzymes that oxidize straight chain or branched chain acyl-CoAs in the metabolism of fatty acids or branched chain amino acids. Deficiencies in members of this gene family are important causes of human disease. A cDNA encoding the human precursor for a novel member (gene symbol ACADSB) of the(More)
Of the nine known PAX genes, only two (PAX2 and PAX8) are expressed in the developing kidney. Genetic evidence in mice and humans indicates that PAX2 plays a critical role in normal renal development and may sit atop a molecular cascade which unfolds during the transition from undifferentiated mesenchyme to the early stages of nephrogenesis. Less is known(More)
Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) is an irreversible renal pathology characterized by podocyte detachment from the glomerular basement membrane, hyalinosis, and sclerosis. Clinically, it manifests with proteinuria and progressive loss of glomerular filtration. Primary idiopathic FSGS can occur in isolation and frequently progresses to end-stage(More)
In humans, PAX2 haploinsufficiency causes renal-coloboma syndrome (RCS) involving eye abnormalities, renal hypoplasia, and renal failure in early life. The authors previously showed that heterozygous mutant Pax2 mice have smaller kidneys with fewer nephrons, associated with elevated apoptosis in the ureteric bud (UB). However, PAX2 may have a variety of(More)
The transcription factor PAX2 is expressed during normal kidney development and is thought to influence outgrowth and branching of the ureteric bud. Mice with homozygous null Pax2 mutations have developmental defects of the midbrain-hindbrain region, optic nerve, and ear and are anephric. During nephrogenesis, PAX2 is also expressed by mesenchymal cells as(More)