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Several proteins are expressed in both immune and nervous systems. However, their putative nonimmune functions in the brain remain poorly understood. KARAP/DAP12 is a transmembrane polypeptide associated with cell-surface receptors in hematopoeitic cells. Its mutation in humans induces Nasu-Hakola disease, characterized by presenile dementia and(More)
Optimal lymphocyte activation requires the simultaneous engagement of stimulatory and costimulatory receptors. Stimulatory immunoreceptors are usually composed of a ligand-binding transmembrane protein and noncovalently associated signal-transducing subunits. Here, we report that alternative splicing leads to two distinct NKG2D polypeptides that associate(More)
NKG2D is an activation receptor that allows natural killer (NK) cells to detect diseased host cells. The engagement of NKG2D with corresponding ligand results in surface modulation of the receptor and reduced function upon subsequent receptor engagement. However, it is not clear whether in addition to modulation the NKG2D receptor complex and/or its(More)
Understanding the mechanisms that help promote protective immune responses to pathogens is a major challenge in biomedical research and an important goal for the design of innovative therapeutic or vaccination strategies. While natural killer (NK) cells can directly contribute to the control of viral replication, whether, and how, they may help orchestrate(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are major contributors to early defense against infections. Their effector functions are controlled by a balance between activating and inhibiting signals. To date, however, the involvement of NK cell activating receptors and signaling pathways in the defense against pathogens has not been extensively investigated. In mice, several(More)
Understanding Natural Killer (NK) cell anatomical distribution is key to dissect the role of these unconventional lymphocytes in physiological and disease conditions. In mouse, NK cells have been detected in various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, while in humans the current knowledge of NK cell distribution at steady state is mainly restricted to(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) regulate NK cell functions, but the signals required for the DC-mediated NK cell activation, i.e., DC-activated NK cell (DAK) activity, remain poorly understood. Upon acute inflammation mimicked by LPS or TNF-alpha, DC undergo a maturation process allowing T and NK cell activation in vitro. Chronic inflammation is controlled in part by(More)
DAP12 is an ITAM-containing adaptor molecule conveying activating properties to surface receptors on many cell types. We show here that DAP12 paradoxically down-modulates plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) cytokine production in vivo during murine CMV (MCMV) infection. Higher levels of IFN-alphabeta and IL-12 were detected upon MCMV infection or CpG(More)
MHC class I-specific Ly49 inhibitory receptors regulate NK cell activation, thereby preventing autologous damage to normal cells. Ly49 receptors are also expressed on a subset of CD8+ T cells whose origin and function remain unknown. We report here that, despite their phenotypic and cytolytic similarities, Ly49+CD8+ T cells and conventional Ly49-CD44high(More)
A common feature of hematopoietic activating immunoreceptors resides in their association at the cell surface with transmembrane signaling adaptors. Several adaptors, such as the CD3 molecules, FcRgamma and KARAP/DAP12, harbor intracytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) that activate Syk-family protein tyrosine kinases. In(More)