Elena Martino

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To elucidate the genetic bases of mycorrhizal lifestyle evolution, we sequenced new fungal genomes, including 13 ectomycorrhizal (ECM), orchid (ORM) and ericoid (ERM) species, and five saprotrophs, which we analyzed along with other fungal genomes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have a reduced complement of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs),(More)
The genome sequences of mycorrhizal fungi will provide new opportunities for studying the biology and the evolution underlying this symbiotic lifestyle. The generation of null mutants at the wild-type loci is one of the best methods for gene-function assignment in the post-genomic era. To our knowledge, the generation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)-null(More)
Many ericaceous species colonize as pioneer plants substrates ranging from arid sandy soils to moist mor humus, in association with their mycorrhizal fungi. Thanks to the symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal fungi, ericaceous plants are also able to grow in highly polluted environments, where metal ions can reach toxic levels in the soil substrate. For a long(More)
During arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization, a focal accumulation of organelles occurs in root epidermal cells, prior to fungal penetration, beneath adhering hyphopodia. This is followed by the appearance of the prepenetration apparatus (PPA), a transcellular column of cytoplasm connected to the nucleus and rich in cytoskeleton and secretory(More)
Two full-length cDNAs (OmZnT1 and OmFET) encoding membrane transporters were identified by yeast functional screening in the heavy metal tolerant ericoid mycorrhizal isolate Oidiodendron maius Zn. OmZnT1 belongs to the Zn-Type subfamily of the cation diffusion facilitators, whereas OmFET belongs to the family of iron permeases. Their properties were(More)
The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerating disease for which the end stage is the rupture of the vessel wall. Accurate prediction of the stresses acting on the aneurysm tissue may be used to determine the actual risk of rupture of a specific aneurysm. To accomplish this, a correct constitutive model for the aneurysmal aortic wall and any(More)
Ericoid endomycorrhizal fungi form intracellular associations with the epidermal root cells of plants belonging to Ericales. In natural environments, these fungi increase the ability of their host plants to colonise soils polluted with toxic metals, although the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Genetic transformation is a powerful tool to(More)
Recent studies have shown that the maximum transverse diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and expansion rate are not entirely reliable indicators of rupture potential. We hypothesize that aneurysm morphology and wall thickness are more predictive of rupture risk and can be the deciding factors in the clinical management of the disease. A(More)
The huge diversity of fungi may reflect both the heterogeneity of the niches they occupy and the diverse stresses they must cope with. In order to investigate the genetic and functional diversity in the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius subjected to heavy metal stress, we isolated O. maius strains from a serpentine site naturally enriched by(More)
Through mechanobiological control of the extracellular matrix, and hence local stiffness, smooth muscle cells of the media and fibroblasts of the adventitia play important roles in arterial homeostasis, including adaptations to altered hemodynamics, injury, and disease. We present a new approach to model arterial wall mechanics that seeks to define better(More)