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Though first described as a lymphotropic virus, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is highly neuropathogenic. Two viral variants are known: HHV-6A and HHV-6B. Both variants can infect glial cells and have been differentially associated with central nervous system diseases, suggesting an HHV-6 variant-specific tropism for glial cell subtypes. We have performed(More)
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) results in the dissemination of virus to gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Subsequently, HIV-1 mediates massive depletion of gut CD4+ T cells, which contributes to HIV-1-induced immune dysfunction. The migration of lymphocytes to gut-associated lymphoid tissue is mediated by integrin alpha4beta7. We(More)
The metabolism of zetidoline, a new neuroleptic, in the rat and the dog has been studied. From the urine of rats and dogs given 5 mg/kg of [2-14C] zetidoline orally, unchanged drug and five metabolites were isolated and the structures of four of them assigned by physicochemical analysis. They are: metabolite B, 4'-hydroxy-3'-chlorophenyl zetidoline;(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects macrophages effectively, despite relatively low levels of cell surface-expressed CD4. Although HIV-1 infections are defined by viral tropisms according to chemokine receptor usage (R5 and X4), variations in infection are common within both R5- and X4-tropic viruses, indicating additional factors(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a central role in innate and adaptive immune responses against viral infections. pDCs secrete type I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines upon stimulation by either TLR7 or TLR9. Throughout the course of HIV infection, the production of type-I IFNs is profoundly impaired, and total pDC cell counts in peripheral blood(More)
This article discusses the main features of the national health research systems (NHRS) of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela, based on documents prepared by their country experts who participated in the First Latin American Conference on Research and Innovation(More)
Membrane cofactor protein (CD46) is a regulator of complement activation that also serves as the entry receptor for human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) and measles virus (MV) into human cells. While it is clear that oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are cell types commonly infected by these viruses, it is unclear whether oligodendrocytes express CD46, or which are(More)
The ultrastructural replication cycle of human herpesvirus 6A and 6B, both T-lymphotropic viruses, with tropism for the central nervous system, was compared by electron microscopy in the same cells, that is, in the T-lymphoblastoid cell line SupT-1 and in human astrocytes. Both HHV-6A and HHV-6B replicated efficiently in SupT-1 and formed viral particles.(More)
Both activated and resting CD4(+) T cells in mucosal tissues play important roles in the earliest phases of infection after sexual transmission of HIV-1, a process that is inefficient. HIV-1 gp120 binds to integrin alpha(4)beta(7) (alpha(4)beta(7)), the gut mucosal homing receptor. We find that alpha(4)beta(7)(high) CD4(+) T cells are more susceptible to(More)