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The advance of nanomaterials has opened new opportunities to develop ever more sensitive sensors owing to their high surface-to-volume ratio. However, it is challenging to achieve intrinsic sensitivities of nanomaterials for ultra-low level detections due to their vulnerability against contaminations. Here we show that despite considerable achievements in(More)
In situ observation of the carbon nanotube nucleation process accompanied by dynamic reconstruction of the catalyst particle morphology is considered within a thermodynamic approach. It reveals the driving force for the detachment of the sp(2)-carbon cap, so-called lift-off-a crucial event in nanotube growth. A continuum model and detailed atomistic(More)
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