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Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that is associated with increases in social affiliative behaviors, particularly toward infants. However, no previous study has investigated healthy adults’ responses to infant faces following oxytocin administration. In addition, given that preliminary evidence suggests that a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the oxytocin(More)
The 5-HT3 receptor is rapidly potentiated by ethanol and mediates fast excitatory serotonin (5-HT) transmission that modulates dopamine release in the reward circuitry. The 5-HT transporter regulates synaptic 5-HT availability. Functional polymorphisms in genes encoding the transporter and receptor may therefore influence addiction vulnerability. In this(More)
Both attention biases to threat and a serotonin-transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) have been linked to heightened neural activation to threat and the emergence of anxiety. The short allele of 5-HTTLPR may act via its effect on neurotransmitter availability, while attention biases shape broad patterns of cognitive processing. We examined individual(More)
Childhood trauma is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and is a known risk factor for suicidal behavior. In this study we sought to determine whether the impact of childhood trauma on suicide risk might be modified by FKBP5, an HPA-axis regulating gene. Sixteen FKBP5 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of ladostigil, a cholinesterase and brain-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, on anxiogenic and depressive-like behaviour and the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress in prenatally stressed (PS) male and female rats. METHODS Ladostigil (17 mg/kg/day) was(More)
IMPORTANCE Combat places soldiers at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The excessive rates of PTSD and other adjustment disorders in soldiers returning home make it imperative to identify risk and resilience factors that could be targeted by novel therapeutic treatments. OBJECTIVE To investigate the interplay among attention to threat, combat(More)
OBJECTIVE Minimal research links anxiety disorders in adolescents to regional gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities and their modulation by genetic factors. Prior research suggests that a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) Val(66)Met polymorphism may modulate such brain morphometry profiles. METHOD Using voxel-based morphometry and magnetic(More)
Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament characterized by vigilance to novelty, sensitivity to approach-withdrawal cues and social reticence in childhood, is associated with risk for anxiety in adolescence. Independent studies link reward hyper-responsivity to BI, adolescent anxiety and dopamine gene variants. This exploratory study extends these(More)
Degeneration of cholinergic cortical neurons is one of the main reasons for the cognitive deficit in dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD) and in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Many subjects with AD and DLB have extrapyramidal dysfunction and depression resulting from degeneration of dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotoninergic neurons. We prepared a(More)
Aggressive disorders are moderately heritable; therefore, identification of genetic influences is important. The X-linked MAOA gene, encoding the MAOA enzyme, has a functional 30 bp repeat polymorphism in the promoter region (MAOA-LPR) that has been shown to influence aggression. Childhood trauma is a known risk factor for numerous psychopathologies in(More)