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INTRODUCTION Apheis aims to provide European decision makers, environmental-health professionals and the general public with up-to-date and easy-to-use information on air pollution (AP) and public health (PH). In the Apheis-3 phase we quantified the PH impact of long-term exposure to PM(2.5) (particulate matter < 2.5 microm) in terms of attributable number(More)
Recently new European policies on ambient air quality--namely, the adoption of new standards for fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), have generated a broad debate about choosing the air quality standards that can best protect public health. The Apheis network estimated the number of potential premature deaths from all causes that could be prevented by(More)
BACKGROUND Gastric cancer is decreasing in most countries. While socioeconomic development is the main factor to which this decline has been attributed, enormous differences among countries and within regions are still observed, with the main contributing factors remaining elusive. This study describes the geographic distribution of gastric cancer mortality(More)
BACKGROUND Health effects linked to exposure to high air pollutant levels have been described in depth, and many recent epidemiologic studies have also consistently reported positive associations between exposure to air pollutants at low concentrations (particularly PM(2.5)) and adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVE To estimate the number of avoidable deaths(More)
BACKGROUND Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water) by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register) Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to(More)
Mining installations are releasing toxic substances into the environment which could pose a health problem to populations in their vicinity. We sought to investigate whether there might be excess cancer-related mortality in populations residing in towns lying in the vicinity of Spanish mining industries governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and(More)
BACKGROUND Installations that burn fossil fuels to generate power may represent a health problem due to the toxic substances which they release into the environment. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether there might be excess mortality due to tumors of lung, larynx and bladder in the population residing near Spanish combustion installations included in the(More)
BACKGROUND Records kept as a result of the implementation of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) constitute a public inventory of industries, created by the European Commission, which is a valuable resource for monitoring industrial pollution. Our objective is to ascertain(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe levels of nitrate and trace elements in drinking water from the study areas of a multicase-control study of cancer in Spain (MCC-Spain). METHODS A total of 227 tap water samples were randomly collected from 67 municipalities in 11 provinces and the nine most frequently consumed bottled water brands were sampled to measure levels of(More)
BACKGROUND Releases to the environment of toxic substances stemming from industrial metal production and processing installations can pose a health problem to populations in their vicinity. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether there might be excess leukemia-related mortality in populations residing in towns in the vicinity of Spanish metal industries(More)