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Human APOBEC3F (huA3F) potently restricts the infectivity of HIV-1 in the absence of the viral accessory protein virion infectivity factor (Vif). Vif functions to preserve viral infectivity by triggering the degradation of huA3F but not rhesus macaque A3F (rhA3F). Here, we use a combination of deletions, chimeras, and systematic mutagenesis between huA3F(More)
The novel Ras effector mNore1, capable of inducing apoptosis, is a multidomain protein. It comprises a C1 domain homologous to PKC and an RA domain similar to the Ras effectors AF-6 and RalGDS. Here, we determine the affinity of these two domains to the active forms of Ras and Rap1 using isothermal calorimetric titration. The interaction of Ras/Rap1-GTP(More)
During studies of APOBEC3 (A3) anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) mechanisms, we identified a single cysteine at position 320 (C320) that disrupts A3DE activity. This residue is located in the recently identified DNA binding domain in A3G. Replacing C320 with a corresponding tyrosine from A3F (Y307) increased A3DE antiviral activity more(More)
The human APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B messenger-RNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) protein is a single-strand DNA deaminase that inhibits the replication of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), other retroviruses and retrotransposons. APOBEC3G anti-viral activity is circumvented by most retroelements, such as through degradation by HIV-1(More)
Bacteriophage DNA packaging motors translocate their genomic DNA into viral heads, compacting it to near-crystalline density. The Bacillus subtilis phage 29 has a unique ring of RNA (pRNA) that is an essential component of its motor, serving as a scaffold for the packaging ATPase. Previously, deletion of a three-base bulge (18-CCA-20) in the pRNA A-helix(More)
Human APOBEC3G (A3G) belongs to a family of polynucleotide cytidine deaminases. This family includes APOBEC1 and AID, which edit APOB mRNA and antibody gene DNA, respectively. A3G deaminates cytidines to uridines in single-strand DNA and inhibits the replication of human immunodeficiency virus-1, other retroviruses, and retrotransposons. Although the(More)
APOBEC3G is a DNA cytidine deaminase that has antiviral activity against HIV-1 and other pathogenic viruses. In this study the crystal structure of the catalytically active C-terminal domain was determined to 2.25 A. This structure corroborates features previously observed in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies, a bulge in the second beta strand and a(More)
APOBEC3G has an important role in human defense against retroviral pathogens, including HIV-1. Its single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminase activity, located in its C-terminal domain (A3Gctd), can mutate viral cDNA and restrict infectivity. We used time-resolved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine kinetic parameters of A3Gctd's(More)
APOBEC3F (A3F) and APOBEC3G (A3G) are DNA cytosine deaminases that potently restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication when the virus is deprived of its accessory protein Vif (virion infectivity factor). Vif counteracts these restriction factors by recruiting A3F and A3G to an E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase complex that mediates their(More)
APOBEC3G is the best known of several DNA cytosine deaminases that function to inhibit the replication of parasitic genetic elements including the lentivirus HIV. Several high-resolution structures of the APOBEC3G catalytic domain have been generated, but none reveal how this enzyme binds to substrate single-stranded DNA. Here, we constructed a panel of(More)