Elena Gazzano

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NAD(P)H oxidases (NOXs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the univalent reduction of oxygen to produce the superoxide anion radical, which in turn can be converted in other reactive oxygen species (ROS) and may participate to the formation of reactive nitrogen derivatives, such as peroxynitrite. By virtue of their activity, NOXs may represent a(More)
Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and the structurally related compound diphenyliodonium (DIP) are widely used as inhibitors of flavoenzymes, particularly NADPH oxidase. Here we report further evidence that DPI and DIP are not specific flavin binders. A 3-h incubation of N11 glial cells with DPI significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent way both the pentose(More)
The pentose phosphate pathway, one of the main antioxidant cellular defense systems, has been related for a long time almost exclusively to its role as a provider of reducing power and ribose phosphate to the cell. In addition to this "traditional" correlation, in the past years multiple roles have emerged for this metabolic cascade, involving the cell(More)
Lung toxicity mediated by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has been widely demonstrated and recently associated with induction of carcinogenic asbestos-like effects, but the chemical features that drive this toxic effect have still not been well elucidated. The presence of metals as trace contaminants during MWCNT preparation, in particular iron (Fe)(More)
Two samples of highly pure multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) similar in hydrophobicity and surface reactivity were prepared with similar length, <5 μm, but markedly different diameter (9.4 vs 70 nm). The samples were compared for their cytotoxic activity, uptake, and ability to induce oxidative stress (ROS production and intracellular GSH depletion) in(More)
Amorphous silicas, opposite to crystalline polymorphs, have been regarded so far as nonpathogenic, but few studies have addressed the toxicity of the wide array of amorphous silica forms. With the advent of nanotoxicology, there has been a rising concern about the safety of silica nanoparticles to be used in nanomedicine. Here, we report a study on the(More)
Nitric oxide (NO), a modulator of several physiological processes, is involved in different human sperm functions. We have investigated whether NO may stimulate the motility of human spermatozoa via activation of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway. Sperm samples obtained by masturbation from 70 normozoospermic patients were processed by the(More)
The activity of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance related protein 1 (MRP1), two membrane transporters involved in multidrug resistance of colon cancer, is increased by high amounts of cholesterol in plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes (DRMs). It has never been investigated whether omega 3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs), which(More)
Human malignant mesothelioma (HMM), which is strongly related to asbestos exposure, exhibits high resistance to many anticancer drugs. Asbestos fibre deposition in the lung may cause hypoxia and iron chelation at the fibre surface. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, which is upregulated by a decreased availability of oxygen and iron, controls the(More)
The measurement of nitric oxide synthase activity in cell lysates is often performed by radiochemical assay that quantifies the conversion of L-[3H]arginine to L-[3H]citrulline. We have developed a spectrophotometric procedure which continuously recycles NADPH through the addition of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase to the cell lysate. This allows nitric(More)