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NAD(P)H oxidases (NOXs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the univalent reduction of oxygen to produce the superoxide anion radical, which in turn can be converted in other reactive oxygen species (ROS) and may participate to the formation of reactive nitrogen derivatives, such as peroxynitrite. By virtue of their activity, NOXs may represent a(More)
Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and the structurally related compound diphenyliodonium (DIP) are widely used as inhibitors of flavoenzymes, particularly NADPH oxidase. Here we report further evidence that DPI and DIP are not specific flavin binders. A 3-h incubation of N11 glial cells with DPI significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent way both the pentose(More)
Lung toxicity mediated by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has been widely demonstrated and recently associated with induction of carcinogenic asbestos-like effects, but the chemical features that drive this toxic effect have still not been well elucidated. The presence of metals as trace contaminants during MWCNT preparation, in particular iron (Fe)(More)
The pentose phosphate pathway, one of the main antioxidant cellular defense systems, has been related for a long time almost exclusively to its role as a provider of reducing power and ribose phosphate to the cell. In addition to this "traditional" correlation, in the past years multiple roles have emerged for this metabolic cascade, involving the cell(More)
Nitric oxide (NO), a modulator of several physiological processes, is involved in different human sperm functions. We have investigated whether NO may stimulate the motility of human spermatozoa via activation of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway. Sperm samples obtained by masturbation from 70 normozoospermic patients were processed by the(More)
The measurement of nitric oxide synthase activity in cell lysates is often performed by radiochemical assay that quantifies the conversion of L-[3H]arginine to L-[3H]citrulline. We have developed a spectrophotometric procedure which continuously recycles NADPH through the addition of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase to the cell lysate. This allows nitric(More)
To understand the effect of the commercial processing of diatomaceous earths (DEs) on their ultimate surface structure and potential toxicity, we investigated the influence of the industrial processing and the nature of the deposit. Two flux calcined specimens from different deposits, DE/1-FC and DE/2-FC, and the simply calcined sample DE/1-C, from the same(More)
Asbestos is a naturally occurring fibrous silicate, whose inhalation is highly related to the risk of developing malignant mesothelioma (MM), and crocidolite is one of its most oncogenic types. The mechanism by which asbestos may cause MM is unclear. We have previously observed that crocidolite in human MM (HMM) cells induces NF-κB activation and stimulates(More)
Two samples of highly pure multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) similar in hydrophobicity and surface reactivity were prepared with similar length, <5 μm, but markedly different diameter (9.4 vs 70 nm). The samples were compared for their cytotoxic activity, uptake, and ability to induce oxidative stress (ROS production and intracellular GSH depletion) in(More)
The behavior of fluoride ions in the human organism is a classic example of double-edged sword. On the one hand the daily supplementation with fluoride is undoubtedly an important preventing factor in protecting teeth from caries, and, as an important mitogenic stimulus for osteoblasts, it may enhance mineral deposition in bone, but on the other hand(More)