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Obesity is a highly heritable and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Here we investigated the contribution of copy number variation to obesity in 300 Caucasian patients with severe early-onset obesity, 143 of whom also had developmental delay. Large (>500 kilobases), rare (<1%) deletions were significantly enriched in patients compared to 7,366 controls (P(More)
At least 5% of individuals with hypertension have adrenal aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). Gain-of-function mutations in KCNJ5 and apparent loss-of-function mutations in ATP1A1 and ATP2A3 were reported to occur in APAs. We find that KCNJ5 mutations are common in APAs resembling cortisol-secreting cells of the adrenal zona fasciculata but are absent in(More)
Thyroid hormones exert their effects through alpha (TRα1) and beta (TRβ1 and TRβ2) receptors. Here we describe a child with classic features of hypothyroidism (growth retardation, developmental retardation, skeletal dysplasia, and severe constipation) but only borderline-abnormal thyroid hormone levels. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a de novo(More)
Obesity has become a major worldwide challenge to public health, owing to an interaction between the Western 'obesogenic' environment and a strong genetic contribution. Recent extensive genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with obesity, but these loci together account for only a small(More)
Craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS) is an X-linked developmental disorder that shows paradoxically greater severity in heterozygous females than in hemizygous males. Females have frontonasal dysplasia and coronal craniosynostosis (fusion of the coronal sutures); in males, hypertelorism is the only typical manifestation. Here, we show that the classical female(More)
Common and rare variants associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity account for <5% of the variance in BMI. We performed SNP and copy number variation (CNV) association analyses in 1,509 children with obesity at the extreme tail (>3 s.d. from the mean) of the BMI distribution and 5,380 controls. Evaluation of 29 SNPs (P < 1 × 10(-5)) in an additional(More)
Single-minded 1 (SIM1) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in the development and function of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Obesity has been reported in Sim1 haploinsufficient mice and in a patient with a balanced translocation disrupting SIM1. We sequenced the coding region of SIM1 in 2,100 patients with severe,(More)
A dozen years have passed since the first genetic lesion was identified in a family with craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the cranial sutures. Subsequently, mutations in the FGFR2, FGFR3, TWIST1, and EFNB1 genes have been shown to account for approximately 25% of craniosynostosis, whilst several additional genes make minor contributions. Using(More)
BACKGROUND Craniosynostosis can be caused by both genetic and environmental factors, the relative contributions of which vary between patients. Genetic testing identifies a pathogenic mutation or chromosomal abnormality in ∼ 21% of cases, but it is likely that further causative mutations remain to be discovered. OBJECTIVE To identify a shared signature of(More)
Boundaries between cellular compartments often serve as signaling interfaces during embryogenesis. The coronal suture is a major growth center of the skull vault and develops at a boundary between cells derived from neural crest and mesodermal origin, forming the frontal and parietal bones, respectively. Premature fusion of these bones, termed coronal(More)