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Acting as a signal, hydrogen peroxide circumvents antioxidant defense by overoxidizing peroxiredoxins (Prxs), the enzymes that metabolize peroxides. We show that sestrins, a family of proteins whose expression is modulated by p53, are required for regeneration of Prxs containing Cys-SO(2)H, thus reestablishing the antioxidant firewall. Sestrins contain a(More)
The toxicity of ionizing radiation is associated with massive apoptosis in radiosensitive organs. Here, we investigate whether a drug that activates a signaling mechanism used by tumor cells to suppress apoptosis can protect healthy cells from the harmful effects of radiation. We studied CBLB502, a polypeptide drug derived from Salmonella flagellin that(More)
PURPOSE Ischemic proliferative retinopathy, which occurs as a complication of diabetes mellitus, prematurity, or retinal vein occlusion, is a major cause of blindness worldwide. In addition to retinal neovascularization, it involves retinal degeneration, of which apoptosis is the main cause. A prior report has described the cloning of a novel(More)
Rtp801 (also known as Redd1, and encoded by Ddit4), a stress-related protein triggered by adverse environmental conditions, inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by stabilizing the TSC1-TSC2 inhibitory complex and enhances oxidative stress-dependent cell death. We postulated that Rtp801 acts as a potential amplifying switch in the development of(More)
RhoA is a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton that is upregulated after spinal cord injury (SCI). We analyzed different methods for siRNA delivery and developed siRNAs targeting RhoA (siRhoA) for SCI treatment. Cy 3.5-labeled siRNA delivered at the time of SCI yielded fluorescence in several cell types in the injury site. Intraspinal injections of(More)
Bacterial lipoproteins (BLP) induce innate immune responses in mammals by activating heterodimeric receptor complexes containing Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). TLR2 signaling results in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)-dependent upregulation of anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidants and cytokines, all of which have been implicated in radiation protection. Here we(More)
Dendritic defects occur in neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by axonopathy, yet the mechanisms that regulate these pathologic changes are poorly understood. Using Thy1-YFPH mice subjected to optic nerve axotomy, we demonstrate early retraction of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendrites and selective loss of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity,(More)
The transcription factor p53 mediates neuronal death in a variety of stress-related and neurodegenerative conditions. The proapoptotic activity of p53 is tightly regulated by the apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP) family members: ASPP1 and ASPP2. However, whether ASPP1/2 play a role in the regulation of p53-dependent neuronal death in the CNS is(More)
Signals that promote myelination must be tightly modulated to adjust myelin thickness to the axonal diameter. In the peripheral nervous system, axonal neuregulin 1 type III promotes myelination by activating erbB2/B3 receptors and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in Schwann cells. Conversely, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10) dephosphorylates(More)