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Distinguishing excitatory from inhibitory neurons with multielectrode array (MEA) recordings is a serious experimental challenge. The current methods, developed in vitro, mostly rely on spike waveform analysis. These however often display poor resolution and may produce errors caused by the variability of spike amplitudes and neuron shapes. Recent(More)
It has been demonstrated using single-cell and multiunit electrophysiology in layer III entorhinal cortex and disinhibited hippocampal CA3 slices that the balancing of the up-down activity is characterized by both GABA(A) and GABA(B) mechanisms. Here we report novel results obtained using multi-electrode array (60 electrodes) simultaneous recordings from(More)
The balance between glutamate- and GABA-mediated neurotransmission in the brain is fundamental in the nervous system, but it is regulated by the "tonic" release of a variety of endogenous factors. One such important group of molecules are the neurosteroids (NSs) which, similarly to benzodiazepines (BDZs), enhance GABAergic neurotransmission. The purpose of(More)
Astrocytes uptake synaptically released glutamate with electrogenic transporters (GluT) and buffer the spike-dependent extracellular K+ excess with background K+ channels. We studied neuronal spikes and the slower astrocytic signals on reverberating neocortical cultures and organotypic slices from mouse brains. Spike trains and glial responses were(More)
CNS reparative-medicine therapeutic strategies need answers on the putative recapitulation of the basic rules leading to mammalian CNS development. To achieve this aim, we focus on the regeneration of functional connections in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. We used organotypic slice cocultures of ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN)(More)
Spontaneous bursting activity is present in vivo during CNS development and in vitro in neocortex slices. A prerequisite for understanding the cooperative behavior in neuronal ensembles is large-scale simultaneous extracellular electrophysiology by using either "tetrodes" (4-wire electrode) in awake animals or multi-electrode arrays (MEA) in long-term(More)
The dynamics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked up-states have been recently compared, in multi-site recordings in vivo and found to have similarities and differences. Also in vitro, this is evident because we here describe a novel computational method to classify into statistically different states the spontaneous reverberating activity recorded from(More)
Unveiling the roles of distinct cell types in brain response to insults is a partially unsolved challenge and a key issue for new neuroreparative approaches. In vivo models are not able to dissect the contribution of residential microglia and infiltrating blood-borne monocytes/macrophages, which are fundamentally undistinguishable; conversely, cultured(More)
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