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BACKGROUND Protein intake in early infancy has been suggested to be an important risk factor for later obesity, but information on potential mechanisms is very limited. OBJECTIVE This study examined the influence of protein intake in infancy on serum amino acids, insulin, and the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis and its possible relation to(More)
Protein intake has been directly associated with kidney growth and function in animal and human observational studies. Protein supply can vary widely during the first months of life, thus promoting different kidney growth patterns and possibly affecting kidney and cardiovascular health in the long term. To explore this further, we examined 601 healthy(More)
BACKGROUND Nutritional factors during a sensitive period can influence child development in a sex-related manner. OBJECTIVE Our aim was to investigate whether sex modulates the responses of relevant biochemical parameters and growth to different protein intakes early in life. DESIGN In a randomized controlled trial, formula-fed infants were assigned to(More)
There is growing evidence of long-term effects of early dietary intervention in infancy on later obesity risk. Many studies showed reduced risk of obesity with breastfeeding in infancy, which could be related to the reduced protein intake with human milk compared to infant formula. In a randomized controlled trial (Childhood Obesity Project), we were able(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The double-blind randomized European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP) demonstrated that reduced protein content in infant formula leads to a lower body mass index (BMI) up to six years of age. Here we aimed at assessing pre-peritoneal fat, a marker of visceral fat, in children participating in the CHOP trial. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
BACKGROUND Early nutrition is recognized as a target for the effective prevention of childhood obesity. Protein intake was associated with more rapid weight gain during infancy-a known risk factor for later obesity. OBJECTIVE We tested whether the reduction of protein in infant formula reduces body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and the prevalence of(More)
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