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BACKGROUND Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have been recently developed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based IGRA for detecting TB in children. METHODS A prospective study in 336 children at risk for TB infection was(More)
BACKGROUND Guidelines for the management of fever in children have been recently published, however "fever phobia" is still spreading. To provide information which may sustain educational interventions tailored to our population we investigated the parental and medical knowledge and management of fever in preschool children. METHODS A questionnaire was(More)
BACKGROUND Although currently available IGRA have been reported to be promising markers for TB infection, they cannot distinguish active tuberculosis (TB) from latent infection (LTBI). OBJECTIVE Children with LTBI, active TB disease or uninfected were prospectively evaluated by an in-house ELISPOT assay in order to investigate possible immunological(More)
BACKGROUND Allergic sensitization in children and allergic diseases arising therefrom are increasing for decades. Several interventions, functional foods, pro- and prebiotics, vitamins are proposed for the prevention of allergies and they can't be uncritically adopted. OBJECTIVE This Consensus document was developed by the Italian Society of Preventive(More)
UNLABELLED HIV is the top and tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, with an estimated 8.7 million incident cases of tuberculosis and 2.5 million new HIV infections annually. The World Health Organization estimates that HIV prevalence among children with tuberculosis, in countries with moderate to high(More)
OBJECTIVE This article summarizes the Italian Pediatric Society guideline on the management of the signs and symptoms of fever in children, prepared as part of the National Guideline Program (NGLP). METHODS Relevant publications in English and Italian were identified through searches of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from their(More)
BACKGROUND Resurgence of pertussis in the post-vaccination era has been reported in Western countries. A shift of cases from school-age children to adolescents, adults and children under 1 year of age has been described in the last decade, and mortality rates in infants are still sustained. We aimed to review and discuss the possible vaccination strategies(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study is to evaluate vitamin D levels in children with latent and active TB compared to healthy controls of the same age and ethnical background. METHODS A multicenter observational study has been conducted in three tertiary care paediatric centres: Anna Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy; Evelina London(More)
BACKGROUND Previous meta-analyses regarding the performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) for tuberculosis diagnosis in children yielded contrasting results, probably due to different inclusion/exclusion criteria. METHODS We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases and calculated pooled estimates of sensitivities and(More)
BACKGROUND Early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), started within the first months of age, has been proven to be the optimal strategy to prevent immunological and clinical deterioration in perinatally HIV-infected children. Nevertheless, data about long-term follow-up of early treated children are lacking. METHODS We report data from 40(More)