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We demonstrate the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a facile and inexpensive model host for several Gram-positive human bacterial pathogens. Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus, but not Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, or Streptococcus pyogenes, kill adult C. elegans. Focusing our studies on the(More)
We reviewed 776 previously reported and 44 new cases of CNS listeriosis outside of pregnancy and the neonatal period, and evaluated the epidemiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic characteristics of this infection. Among patients with Listeria meningitis/meningoencephalitis, hematologic malignancy and kidney transplantation were the leading predisposing(More)
Google Flu Trends can detect regional outbreaks of influenza 7-10 days before conventional Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance systems. We describe the Google Trends tool, explain how the data are processed, present examples, and discuss its strengths and limitations. Google Trends shows great promise as a timely, robust, and sensitive(More)
Leucocytoclastic vasculitis is a small vessel inflammatory disease mediated mostly by deposition of immune complexes. Infections, medications, chemicals, bacteria, viruses, and diseases associated with immune complexes have been accused in the pathogenesis. Cutaneous leucocytoclastic vasculitis presents as palpable purpura most often localized in the lower(More)
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious complication during treatment of opportunistic fungal infections that frequently afflict immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Improved knowledge of the molecular pathways controlling MDR in pathogenic fungi should facilitate the development(More)
Pathogens must be able to overcome both host defenses and antimicrobial treatment in order to successfully infect and maintain colonization of the host. One way fungi accomplish this feat and overcome intercellular toxin accumulation is efflux pumps, in particular ATP-binding cassette transporters and transporters of the major facilitator superfamily.(More)
Although the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Enterococcus faecium is a leading source of nosocomial infections, it appears to lack many of the overt virulence factors produced by other bacterial pathogens, and the underlying mechanism of pathogenesis is not clear. Using E. faecium-mediated killing of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans as an indicator(More)
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual was first diagnosed with red blood cell aplasia due to B19 parvovirus infection in late 1989. Over the subsequent seven-year period, he received a total of 119 units of red blood cells (RBCs) and intravenous immunoglobulin every 2-3 weeks. In 1996 combination antiretroviral treatment with a protease(More)