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Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They not only represent a potential platform for development of novel vaccines but also provide a tool for efficient adjuvant and antigen delivery system. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between BGs of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and bovine(More)
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is one of the potent endogenous adjuvants released by necrotic and activated innate immune cells. HMGB1 modulates innate and adaptive immune responses in humans and mice by mediating immune cells crosstalk. However, the immuno-modulatory effects of HMGB1 in the bovine immune system are not clearly known. In this study, the(More)
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