Elaine Symanski

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Nonstationary behavior in occupational exposure was examined among a number of job groups from different industries. A change in the mean level of exposure between two survey periods was evaluated by applying mixed-effects models. Overall, differences between surveys were observed in slightly more than one-third of the industries analyzed and in about(More)
Investigations have suggested that owing to the effects of autocorrelation and/or non-stationary behaviour exposure variability increases with the number of days between measurements. This study confirmed such increasing variability with the interval between observations in a collection of occupational data sets after controlling for factors likely to(More)
Epidemiological studies examining the association between exposure to tap water contaminants (such as chlorination by-products) and disease outcomes (such as cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes) have been limited by inaccurate exposure assessment. Failure to take into account the variation in beverage and tap water consumption and exposure to volatile(More)
Exposure assessment is a critical component of epidemiologic studies, and more sophisticated approaches require that variation in exposure be considered. We examined the intra- and interindividual sources of variation in exposure to mercury vapor as measured in air, blood, and urine among four groups of workers during 1990-1997 at a Swedish chloralkali(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer is the second leading cause of death among U.S. children with few known risk factors. There is increasing interest in the role of air pollutants, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene, in the etiology of childhood cancers. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to assess whether census tracts with the highest benzene or 1,3-butadiene ambient air levels(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have reported positive associations between maternal exposure to air pollutants and several adverse birth outcomes. However, there have been no studies assessing the association between environmental levels of hazardous air pollutants, such as benzene, and neural tube defects (NTDs), a common and serious group of congenital(More)
The poor quality of traditional assessments of exposure has encouraged epidemiologists to explore biological monitoring in studies of chronic diseases. Yet, despite theoretical advantages, biomarkers have not been widely used in such applications. This article compares the general utility of a biomarker with that of the measurement of exposure per se.(More)
OBJECTIVES To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of long term changes in occupational exposure among a broad cross section of industries worldwide. METHODS A review of the scientific literature identified studies that reported historical changes in exposure. About 700 sets of data from 119 published and several unpublished sources were compiled. Data were(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of(More)
Consumption of sport-caught fish from the Great Lakes is a recognized source of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Understanding temporal changes in PCB body burden is crucial for evaluating exposure levels and augmenting validity of studies investigating their relationship to adverse health effects. Using data collected from 1980 to 1995,(More)