Elaine Symanski

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BACKGROUND Cancer is the second leading cause of death among U.S. children with few known risk factors. There is increasing interest in the role of air pollutants, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene, in the etiology of childhood cancers. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to assess whether census tracts with the highest benzene or 1,3-butadiene ambient air levels(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have reported positive associations between maternal exposure to air pollutants and several adverse birth outcomes. However, there have been no studies assessing the association between environmental levels of hazardous air pollutants, such as benzene, and neural tube defects (NTDs), a common and serious group of congenital(More)
Consumption of sport-caught fish from the Great Lakes is a recognized source of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Understanding temporal changes in PCB body burden is crucial for evaluating exposure levels and augmenting validity of studies investigating their relationship to adverse health effects. Using data collected from 1980 to 1995,(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurs in many occupational settings. There is evidence in animal models that maternal exposure to PAHs during pregnancy is associated with gastroschisis in offspring; however, to our knowledge, no human studies examining this association have been conducted. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to conduct(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of(More)
BACKGROUND While studies indicate that the attenuating effects of imperfectly measured exposure can be substantial, they have not had the requisite data to compare methods of assessing exposure for the same individuals monitored over common time periods. METHODS We examined measurement error in multiple exposure measures collected in parallel on 32 groups(More)
BACKGROUND Traffic exhaust, refineries and industrial facilities are major sources of air toxics identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for their potential risk to human health. In utero and early life exposures to air toxics such as benzene and 1,3-butadiene, which are known leukemogens in adults, may play an etiologic role in(More)