Elaine Symanski

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A database of approximately 20,000 chemical exposures has been constructed in close co-operation between the School of Public Health of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Department of Air Pollution of the Wageningen Agricultural University. A special feature of this database is that only multiple measurements of exposure from the same(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer is the second leading cause of death among U.S. children with few known risk factors. There is increasing interest in the role of air pollutants, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene, in the etiology of childhood cancers. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to assess whether census tracts with the highest benzene or 1,3-butadiene ambient air levels(More)
It is generally assumed that workers employed in the same job at a given location are uniformly exposed, i.e., that they have the same long-term mean exposure. This assumption has led to observational schemes for classifying workers into homogeneous exposure groups (HEGs), based on job title, location, and other identifiable features of the work(More)
Postmenopausal bone loss may result in the release of lead stored in bone. This study examined Mexican-American women aged 20 years and older who participated in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1982-1984) to assess the influence of menopause, pregnancy history, and smoking on blood lead levels. After adjustment for factors likely to(More)
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share an inflammatory etiology and are known to be influenced by diet. We investigated associations of hypothesized prooxidative (Fe) and antioxidative (Zn, Mg, β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E) micronutrients with incident MetS, T2D, and CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of(More)
Assessments of occupational exposures to chemicals are generally based upon the practice of compliance testing in which the probability of compliance is related to the exceedance [gamma, the likelihood that any measurement would exceed an occupational exposure limit (OEL)] and the number of measurements obtained. On the other hand, workers' chronic health(More)
Epidemiological studies examining the association between exposure to tap water contaminants (such as chlorination by-products) and disease outcomes (such as cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes) have been limited by inaccurate exposure assessment. Failure to take into account the variation in beverage and tap water consumption and exposure to volatile(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the risk of prostate cancer associated with farming by duration, recency and specific activities among African-Americans and Caucasians. METHODS This population-based case-control study had information on farming-related activities for 405 incident prostate cancer cases and 392 controls matched for age, race and region in South(More)
OBJECTIVES To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of long term changes in occupational exposure among a broad cross section of industries worldwide. METHODS A review of the scientific literature identified studies that reported historical changes in exposure. About 700 sets of data from 119 published and several unpublished sources were compiled. Data were(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have reported positive associations between maternal exposure to air pollutants and several adverse birth outcomes. However, there have been no studies assessing the association between environmental levels of hazardous air pollutants, such as benzene, and neural tube defects (NTDs), a common and serious group of congenital(More)