Elaine S. Ward

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Antimicrobial agents have been reported to exhibit immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, both in vivo and in vitro (e.g., in human lymphocytes, macrophages and monocytes). The effects of moxifloxacin on cytokine immunomodulatory mediators, free radical generation and hydrolytic enzyme activities in zymogen A-stimulated human THP-1 monocytes(More)
Object-orientedsoftwaredevelopmentcan be a structured, well-definedapproachthatnxiuces risk andimproves customer and management insight into complex systemsdevelopment. This paper describes a proven, powerful life-cycle software development processthat is anevolutionary improvement on traditional structuredapproaches,Abstraction, decomposition, and(More)
This paper describes the challenges and solutions encountered while introducing and refining a comprehensive object-oriented life-cycle methodology to government deliverable projects. The paper focuses on techniques that have promoted efficient, two-way technology transfer between development teams and a methodology process group cooperatively applying(More)
2,3-Dihydrophthalazine-1,4-diones, indazolones, 3-imino-1-oxoisodolines, homophthalimides, napthalidimides, diphenamides, and 6,7-dihydro-5H-dibenz[c,e]azepines proved to be potent inhibitors of the activity of human Tmolt4 T cell leukemia Type II IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH). This inhibition was competitive, yielding Ki values in the range of 1.96 to 48.9(More)
Uptake of [14C]-azithromycin into THP-1 human monocytes was determined at pH 7.4, 6.8 or 5.5 over 4-log antibiotic concentrations for 24 h under a number of conditions. Stimulation of cells was with bacteria, latex beads, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or zymogen A. Subcellular organelle disposition was determined after isolation by ultracentrifugation or(More)
Alatrofloxacin functions similar to other fluoroquinolone antibiotics in that it not only has antibiotic activity to kill invading organisms by interfering with DNA synthesis, it possesses immunosuppressive activity. In the first hour after bacteria have been phagocytosed by THP-1 monocytes, the drug activates a lytic mechanism involving the release of(More)
Moxifloxacin uptake by human THP-1 monocytes was passive and initially linear and reached equilibrium after approximately 4 h. High intracellular concentrations were achieved and intracellular/extracellular [I/E] ratios were between 1925 and 4575 for the lowest concentration of 0.004 microg/ml at pH 7.4 and 6.9. The uptake of moxifloxacin was reduced by(More)
The effects of grepafloxacin on the release of cytokines, chemical mediators, hydrolytic enzyme activities, and lipoxygenation in zymogen A- or Staphylococcus aureus-stimulated human THP-1 monocytes were evaluated. Initially, consistent with stimulation of phagocytic mechanisms of the monocytes, increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) release,(More)
Small-molecular-weight benzohydroxamic and malonic acids and maleic hydrazide proved to be potent inhibitors of the activity of human Tmolt4 leukaemia Type II IMP (inosine monophosphate) dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity. They were competitive inhibitors with respect to IMPDH demonstrating Ki values in the range 2.57-41.3 microM, less than half the values of(More)
The macrolide antibiotics are bacteriostatic agents interfering with protein synthesis but they are taken up by phagocytic cells, e.g. macrophages, neutrophils and fibroblasts which take up infectious organisms into phagosome-lysosomal vaculoes. Recent studies have suggested that these macrolide antibiotics block the spread of infections by mechanisms(More)