Elaine M Billaud

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Perspectives in immunosuppressive drug therapy have changed rapidly in the past few years with the appearance on the market of several new entities. Used for organ transplantation, bone-marrow transplantation and more recently in some auto-immune diseases, the usual classical scheme consisting of corticoids, azathioprine (1970) and cyclosporin (1980), with(More)
Monitoring immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs) in blood or plasma is still a key therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) application in clinical settings. Narrow target ranges and severe side effects at drug underexposure or overexposure make accurate and precise measurements a must. This overview prepared by the Immunosuppressive Drugs Scientific Committee of the(More)
The French group 'Suivi Therapeutique Pharmacologique' (STP) has tried to define the best translation of the English term Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM). The TDM concept was initiated with the development of Pharmacokinetics and Analytical Chemistry. At first, the aim was the adaptation to target concentrations of efficacy and toxicity. Then, monitoring(More)
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