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The localization of substance P in brain regions that coordinate stress responses and receive convergent monoaminergic innervation suggested that substance P antagonists might have psychotherapeutic properties. Like clinically used antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs, substance P antagonists suppressed isolation-induced vocalizations in guinea pigs. In a(More)
OBJECTIVES There is increasing evidence that polymorphism of the ABCB1 (MDR1) gene contributes to interindividual variability in bioavailability and tissue distribution of P-glycoprotein substrates. The aim of the present study was to (1) identify and describe novel variants in the ABCB1 gene, (2) understand the extent of variation in ABCB1 at the(More)
The Sod2 gene for Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an intramitochondrial free radical scavenging enzyme that is the first line of defense against superoxide produced as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation, was inactivated by homologous recombination. Homozygous mutant mice die within the first 10 days of life with a dilated cardiomyopathy, accumulation(More)
Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is a water-selective transporting protein expressed in epithelial cells of serous acini in salivary gland. We generated AQP5 null mice by targeted gene disruption. The genotype distribution from intercross of founder AQP5 heterozygous mice was 70:69:29 wild-type:heterozygote:knockout, indicating impaired prenatal survival of the null(More)
A mouse model for Down syndrome, Ts1Cje, has been developed. This model has made possible a step in the genetic dissection of the learning, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities associated with segmental trisomy for the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous with the so-called "Down syndrome region" of human chromosome segment 21q22. Tests of(More)
Age-related degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) contributes to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. With aging, the partial trisomy 16 (Ts65Dn) mouse model of Down's syndrome exhibited reductions in BFCN size and number and regressive changes in the hippocampal terminal fields of these neurons with respect to(More)
Two mouse models are widely used for Down syndrome (DS) research. The Ts65Dn mouse carries a small chromosome derived primarily from mouse chromosome 16, causing dosage imbalance for approximately half of human chromosome 21 orthologs. These mice have cerebellar pathology with direct parallels to DS. The Ts1Cje mouse, containing a translocated chromosome(More)
The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate coexists with the peptide known as substance P in primary afferents that respond to painful stimulation. Because blockers of glutamate receptors reliably reduce pain behaviour, it is assumed that 'pain' messages are mediated by glutamate action on dorsal horn neurons. The contribution of substance P, however, is(More)
The phenotype of NK1R-/- mice was compared with that of acute pharmacological blockade of the tachykinin NK1 receptor on sensorimotor function and in assays relevant to depressive illness and anxiety. The dose range for L-760735 and GR205171 that was associated with functional blockade of central NK1 receptors in the target species was established by(More)
Administration of methamphetamine (METH) to rats and nonhuman primates causes loss of terminals in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. The mechanism by which METH causes its neurotoxicity is not known. To evaluate further the role of oxyradicals in METH-induced neurotoxicity, we have tested its effects in CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD) transgenic (Tg)(More)