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Nature has evolved efficient strategies to synthesize complex mineralized structures that exhibit exceptional damage tolerance. One such example is found in the hypermineralized hammer-like dactyl clubs of the stomatopods, a group of highly aggressive marine crustaceans. The dactyl clubs from one species, Odontodactylus scyllarus, exhibit an impressive set(More)
We describe a method to measure the viscosity of polystyrene liquid films with thicknesses ϳ5 and ϳ80 nm spin-cast on oxide-coated silicon. In this method, temporal evolution of the film surface is monitored and modeled according to the dynamics of the surface capillary waves. Viscosities obtained from the ϳ80 nm films display an excellent agreement with(More)
Systematic changes in the exocyclic substiution of core phthalocyanine platform tune the absorption properties to yield commercially viable dyes that function as the primary light absorbers in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Blends of these complementary phthalocyanines absorb a broader portion of the solar spectrum compared to a single dye,(More)
Surface sensitive x-ray scattering techniques with atomic scale resolution are employed to investigate the microscopic structure of the surface of three classes of liquid binary alloys: (i) Surface segregation in partly miscible binary alloys as predicted by the Gibbs adsorption rule is investigated for GaIn. The first layer consists of a supercooled In(More)
Resonant x-ray reflectivity measurements from the surface of liquid Bi(22)In(78) find only a modest surface Bi enhancement, with 35 at. % Bi in the first atomic layer. This is in contrast to the Gibbs adsorption in all liquid alloys studied to date, which show surface segregation of a complete monolayer of the low surface tension component. This suggests(More)
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