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Nearly one hundred years ago, the fermentative production of acetone by Clostridium acetobutylicum provided a crucial alternative source of this solvent for manufacture of the explosive cordite. Today there is a resurgence of interest in solventogenic Clostridium species to produce n-butanol and ethanol for use as renewable alternative transportation fuels.(More)
Biological and chemocatalytic processes are tailored in order to maximize the production of sustainable biodiesel from lignocellulosic sugar. Thus, the combination of hydrotalcite-supported copper(II) and palladium(0) catalysts with a modification of the fermentation from acetone-butanol-ethanol to isopropanol-butanol-ethanol predictably produces higher(More)
The design and development of metal-cluster-based heterogeneous catalysts with high activity, selectivity, and stability under solution-phase reaction conditions will enable their applications as recyclable catalysts in large-scale fine chemicals production. To achieve these required catalytic properties, a heterogeneous catalyst must contain specific(More)
Research to develop highly versatile, chiral, heterogeneous catalysts for asymmetric organic transformations, without quenching the catalytic reactivity, has met with limited success. While chiral supramolecular structures, connected by weak bonds, are highly active for homogeneous asymmetric catalysis, their application in heterogeneous catalysis is rare.(More)
Analysis of catalytic organic transformations in flow reactors and detection of short-lived intermediates are essential for optimization of these complex reactions. In this study, spectral mapping of a multistep catalytic reaction in a flow microreactor was performed with a spatial resolution of 15 μm, employing micrometer-sized synchrotron-based IR and(More)
A combination of the advantages of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis could enable the development of sustainable catalysts with novel reactivity and selectivity. Although heterogeneous catalysts are often recycled more easily than their homogeneous counterparts, they can be difficult to apply in traditional organic reactions and modification of their(More)
The morphology and surface elemental composition of Au-Pd bimetallic nanoclusters are reported to be sensitive to and affected by reduced silicon defect sites and structural corrugation on SiO2/Si(100), generated by argon ion sputtering under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. Metastable structures of the bimetallic clusters, where Au atoms are depleted(More)
The critical role in surface reactions and heterogeneous catalysis of metal atoms with low coordination numbers, such as found at atomic steps and surface defects, is firmly established. But despite the growing availability of tools that enable detailed in situ characterization, so far it has not been possible to document this role directly. Surface(More)
The demand for catalyst with higher activity and higher selectivity is still a central issue in current material science community. On the basis of first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the catalytic performance of the Pd-TiO2 hybrid nanostructures can be selectively promoted or depressed by choosing the suitable shaped Pd and TiO2(More)
The properties of many functional materials critically depend on the spatial distribution of surface active sites. In the case of solid catalysts, the geometric and electronic properties of different surface sites will directly impact their catalytic properties. However, the detection of catalytic sites at the single nanoparticle level cannot be easily(More)