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In the olfactory system of vertebrates, a large number of primary sensory neurons terminate in glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where they make synapses with a significantly smaller number of secondary neurons. We applied small amounts of a lipophilic neural tracer (Dil) in the glomerular regions of the lateral olfactory bulb in crucian carp, and(More)
Molecular mechanisms involved in the replenishment of the fast neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA are poorly understood. Glutamine sustains their generation. However, glutamine formation from the recycled transmitters is confined to glial processes and requires facilitators for its translocation across the glial and neuronal membranes. Indeed, glial(More)
Experiments were performed to investigate which bundle of the olfactory tract was essential for mediating feeding behaviour in crucian carp. Fish were divided in three groups: control fish, fish with only the lateral olfactory tracts (LOTs) intact and fish with the LOTs cut. The fish were maintained in physiological saline after surgery to preserve the(More)
Activation of NMDA receptor requires two co-agonists, glutamate and glycine. Despite its intrinsic role in brain functions molecular mechanisms involved in glutamate replenishment and identification of the origin of glycine have eluded characterization. We have performed direct measurements of glycine flux by SN2 (Slc38a5; also known as SNAT5), executed(More)
To study the projection of a special type of sensory neuron called crypt cells in the olfactory system in crucian carp, Carassius carassius, we applied the neural tracer 1,1-dilinoleyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) in the olfactory bulb (OB). Small crystals of DiI were applied in a small area at the synaptic region at the ventral(More)
Recent developments in the functional anatomy and physiology of the fish olfactory system reveal three parallel pathways from the sensory epithelium, via the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. There are three morphological types of sensory neurones spread in a seemingly overlapping arrangement in the olfactory epithelium. The axons of each type of sensory(More)
In the present study, we applied a lipophilic tracer, Dil (1,1-dilinoleyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate), to the synaptic region of the medial olfactory bulb in formaldehyde-fixed preparations from the crucian carp. We observed staining both in the axons of secondary neurons leading to the brain and in the olfactory receptor neurons(More)
Experiments were performed to determine which bundles of the olfactory tracts were essential for mediating alarm reaction in crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.). The fish were maintained in physiological saline after surgery to preserve the remaining tracts and postoperative inspections revealed the functionality of the intact tracts. Operations on the(More)
In the present study, we exposed the olfactory epithelia of crucian carp, Carassius carassius, and brown trout, Salmo trutta, to dextran coupled with Alexa dyes together with odorants. Dye uptake was severely reduced after pre-exposure to nocodazole, an inhibitor of microtubule polymerization that impairs endocytosis, supporting the hypothesis that(More)
Olfactory sensory neurons of vertebrates regenerate throughout the life of the animal. In fishes, crypt cells are a type of olfactory sensory neurons thought to respond to sex pheromones. Here, we demonstrate that the number of crypt cells in the olfactory epithelium of the crucian carp varies dramatically throughout the year. During winter, few crypt cells(More)