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Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a commonly used brominated flame retardant with recognized neuro- and cytotoxic properties that are presumably mediated by intracellular Ca(2+) release. Other studies have demonstrated that ryanodine is able to inhibit Ca(2+) efflux from skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes in response to the known Ca(2+) releaser(More)
Several in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective potential of pretreatment with 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol). The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of calcitriol administered in vivo after a brain ischemic episode in the rat model of perinatal asphyxia, or when co-applied with or without(More)
1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1MeTIQ), unlike several other tetrahydroisoquinolines, displays neuroprotective properties. To elucidate this action we compared the effects of 1MeTIQ with 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ), a compound sharing many activities with 1MeTIQ (among them reducing free radicals formed during dopamine catabolism), but(More)
Exposure of rat cerebral mitochondria to 2-10 mM glutamine (Gln) for 20 min, produced a concentration-dependent, gradual decrease of light scattering reflecting mitochondrial swelling. The light scattering decreasing effect of 5 mM Gln was attenuated by 0.5 microM cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) induction.(More)
In this study we tested if calcium imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction, which have been implicated in the conventional mechanisms of excitotoxicity induced by glutamate (Glu), are also involved in homocysteine (Hcy) neurotoxicity. Primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells were incubated for 30 min in the presence of 25 mM D,L-Hcy or 1mM Glu. At(More)
One of the aspects of ammonia toxicity to brain cells is increased production of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthases (NOSs). Previously we showed that ammonia increases arginine (Arg) uptake in cultured rat cortical astrocytes specifically via y(+)L amino acid transport system, by activation of its member, a heteromeric y(+)LAT2 transporter. Here, we tested(More)
One of the forms of phosphate activated glutaminase (PAG) is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. It has been debated whether glutamate formed from glutamine in the reaction catalyzed by PAG has direct access to mitochondrial or cytosolic metabolism. In this study, metabolism of [U-(13)C]glutamine (3 mM) or [U-(13)C]glutamate (10 mM) was(More)
This in vivo microdialysis study compared the effects of NMDA and D,L-homocysteine (Hcy) administered via dialysis medium on 45Ca efflux from prelabeled rabbit hippocampus. Application of these agonists evoked dose-dependent, and sensitive to MK-801, opposite effects: NMDA decreased the 45Ca radioactivity in the dialysate, whereas Hcy induced the release of(More)
BACKGROUND Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a toxic brominated flame retardant. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure of primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) to ≥ 10 μM TBBPA induces toxicity and excitotoxicity, and the underlying mechanism may involve calcium imbalance and oxidative stress. Here we examined whether the(More)
Elevated homocysteine is a risk factor in cardiovascular diseases and neurodegeneration. Among the putative mechanisms of homocysteine-evoked neurotoxicity, disturbances in methylation processes and NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity have been suggested. Our previous studies demonstrated that group I metabotropic glutamate receptors along with NMDA(More)