Elżbieta Flak

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BACKGROUND In this prospective cohort study of Caucasian mothers and children in Krakow, Poland, we evaluated the role of prenatal exposure to urban air pollutants in the pathogenesis of neurobehavioral disorders. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and(More)
The purpose of this study was to estimate exposure of pregnant women in Poland to fine particulate matter [less than or equal to 2.5 microm in diameter (PM 2.5)] and to assess its effect on the birth outcomes. The cohort consisted of 362 pregnant women who gave birth between 34 and 43 weeks of gestation. The enrollment included only nonsmoking women with(More)
PURPOSE The aim of the study is to assess the cognitive and psychomotor status of 1-year-old infants whose mothers were exposed to low, but varying, amounts of mercury during pregnancy. METHODS Mercury levels in cord and maternal blood at delivery were used to assess prenatal environmental exposure to mercury. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were used(More)
BACKGROUND Although the maternal fish consumption is supposed to have beneficial effects on development of infants, it may be harmful for child cognitive development since fish is a common source of methylmercury. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Purpose of the study was to describe the usual pattern of fish consumption during pregnancy in Poland and explain the(More)
OBJECTIVES Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne(More)
UNLABELLED The primary purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between very low-level of prenatal lead exposure measured in the cord blood (<5 microg/dL) and possible gender-specific cognitive deficits in the course of the first three years of life. The accumulated lead dose in infants over the pregnancy period was measured by the cord blood(More)
BACKGROUND The primary purpose of the study was to establish a possible association between very low levels of prenatal exposure to lead and mental development of children at 12, 24 and 36 months of age. METHODS The study sample consisted of 444 children born to mothers who attended ambulatory prenatal clinics in Krakow inner city in the first and second(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of absorbed mercury (Hg) by mothers and their infants as a result of fish consumption during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The cohort consisted of 313 mother-infant pairs recruited initially from ambulatory prenatal clinics in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. The customary(More)
The relationship between tobacco smoking in pregnancy and breastfeeding is of public health importance. The present birth cohort study provided the opportunity to investigate whether the negative relationship between passive smoking measured by the cotinine concentrations in maternal blood at delivery and breastfeeding in postpartum could also be confirmed(More)
The purpose of the study was to assess the neurocognitive status of 6-month-old infants whose mothers were exposed to low but varying amounts of lead during pregnancy. Lead levels in the cord blood were used to assess environmental exposure and the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) assessed visual recognition memory (VRM). The cohort consisted of 452(More)