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Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor agonists administered peripherally increase colonic propulsive motility and fecal output in experimental animals. In addition, endogenous CRF-related peptides are found in the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tissues, suggesting a local expression of CRF receptors. In the present study, we report the expression of(More)
Peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor ligands inhibit gastric acid secretion and emptying while stimulating gastric mucosal blood flow in rats. Endogenous CRF ligands are expressed in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tissues pointing to local expression of CRF receptors. We mapped the distribution of CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1) and 2 (CRF2)(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), also termed corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) or corticoliberin, is the major regulator of the adaptive response to internal or external stresses. An essential component of the adaptation mechanism is the adrenal gland. CRF regulates adrenal function indirectly through the central nervous system (CNS) via the(More)
The hypothalamic neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) has been found in several types of human cancer, where its biological role is not clarified. In experimental models of breast cancer CRF has been shown to exert anti-proliferative and other actions. Aim of the present study was to describe the expression of the two types of CRF receptors(More)
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system, consisting of CRH, urocortins (Ucns), their receptors CRH(1) and CRH(2), and CRH-binding protein, holds the principal role in mediating the response to stress stimuli. Besides their expression in the brain, CRH neuropeptides and receptors have been found in multiple peripheral sites. We investigated the(More)
Brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) acting on CRF receptor type 1 (CRF(1)) is a main signaling pathway in the stress response. CRF is also produced in a variety of peripheral sites and acts locally as a proinflammatory mediator. We investigated CRF(1) mRNA expression in the human gastrointestinal tract, and localized CRF(1) immunoreactive cells in(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) affects catecholamine production both centrally and peripherally. The aim of the present work was to examine the presence of CRF, its related peptides, and their receptors in the medulla of human and rat adrenals and their direct effect on catecholamine synthesis and secretion. CRF, urocortin I (UCN1), urocortin II(More)
Regional chemotherapy was first used for lung cancer 30 years ago. Since then, new methods of drug delivery and pharmaceuticals have been investigated in vitro, and in animals and humans. An extensive review of drug delivery systems, pharmaceuticals, patient monitoring, methods of enhancing inhaled drug deposition, safety and efficacy, and also additional(More)
Macrolides have long been recognised to exert immunomodulary and anti-inflammatory actions. They are able to suppress the “cytokine storm” of inflammation and to confer an additional clinical benefit through their immunomodulatory properties. A search of electronic journal articles was performed using combinations of the following keywords: macrolides,(More)
Among the most prevalent of mental illnesses, depression is increasing in incidence in the Western world. It presents with a wide variety of symptoms that involve both the CNS and the periphery. Multiple pharmacological observations led to the development of the monoamine theory as a biological basis for depression, according to which diminished(More)