BACKGROUND Polypodium hydriforme is a parasite with an unusual life cycle and peculiar morphology, both of which have made its systematic position uncertain. Polypodium has traditionally been considered a cnidarian because it possesses nematocysts, the stinging structures characteristic of this phylum. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies using… (More)
Musculature of the free-living stages of Polypodium hydriforme has been studied using phalloidin fluorescence method and confocal microscopy. P. hydriforme is a unique cnidarian possessing only smooth muscle cells situated within the mesoglea, not epithelial muscle cells, like the rest of cnidarians. Phalloidin fluorescence on whole mount preparations… (More)
Correction to Evans, N.M., Lindner, A., Raikova, E.V., Collins, A.G. and Cartwright, P. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the phylum Cnidaria. BMC Evol Biol, 2008, 8:139.
Polypodium hydriforme, the only species in Polypodiozoa, which is currently considered a class of Cnidaria, and likely a sister group to Medusozoa (together with Myxozoa), is a cnidarian adapted to intracellular parasitism inside sturgeon oocytes. Free-living P. hydriforme lives on river bottoms; it walks on supporting tentacles and uses sensory tentacles… (More)
The larval stage of Polypodium hydriforme is planuliform and parasitic inside the growing oocytes of acipenserid fishes. The larva has inverted germ layers and a special envelope, the trophamnion, surrounding it within the host oocyte. The trophamnion is a giant unicellular provisory structure derived from the second polar body and performing both… (More)
The nervous system of intracellular parasitic cnidarian Polypodium hydriforme at various stages of its life cycle has been studied by the immunocytochemical method using antibodies to FMRF-amide and by electron microscopy. Neurosecretory, sensory, and ganglion cells have been identified both at the parasitic stage (planula and stolon stages, when body… (More)
Nerve cells in a parasitic cnidarian Polypodium hydriforme at the parasitic and free-living stages of the life cycle have been localized immunocytochemically using antibodies to FMRF-amide, and their ultrastructure has been described. Ganglion cells form a net under epidermis consisting of bi- and tripolar neurons which cross the mesoglea and usually… (More)