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The damage-inducible UmuD' and UmuC proteins are required for most SOS mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. Our recent assay to reconstitute this process in vitro, using a native UmuD'(2)C complex, revealed that the highly purified preparation contained DNA polymerase activity. Here we eliminate the possibility that this activity is caused by a contaminating(More)
For life to be sustained, mistakes in DNA repair must be tolerated when damage obscures the genetic information. In bacteria such as Escherichia coli, DNA damage elicits the well regulated 'SOS response'. For the extreme case of damage that cannot be repaired by conventional enzymes, there are proteins that allow the replication of DNA through such lesions,(More)
DNA damage-inducible mutagenesis in Escherichia coli is largely dependent upon the activity of the UmuD (UmuD') and UmuC proteins. The intracellular level of these proteins is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and the posttranslational levels. Such regulation presumably allows cells to deal with DNA damage via error-free repair pathways before(More)
Most SOS mutagenesis in Escherichia coli is dependent on the UmuD and UmuC proteins. Perhaps as a consequence, the activity of these proteins is exquisitely regulated. The intracellular level of UmuD and UmuC is normally quite low but increases dramatically in lon- strains, suggesting that both proteins are substrates of the Lon protease. We report here(More)
Recent studies suggest that DNA polymerase eta (poleta) and DNA polymerase iota (poliota) are involved in somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin variable genes. To test the role of poliota in generating mutations in an animal model, we first characterized the biochemical properties of murine poliota. Like its human counterpart, murine poliota is extremely(More)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD30 gene encodes DNA polymerase eta. Humans possess two Rad30 homologs. One (RAD30A/POLH) has previously been characterized and shown to be defective in humans with the Xeroderma pigmentosum variant phenotype. Here, we report experiments demonstrating that the second human homolog (RAD30B), also encodes a novel DNA polymerase(More)
We have developed a series of plasmid vectors for the soluble expression and subsequent purification of recombinant proteins that have historically proven to be extremely difficult to purify from Escherichia coli. Instead of dramatically overproducing the target protein, it is expressed at a low basal level that facilitates the correct folding of the(More)
Most inducible mutagenesis in Escherichia coli is dependent upon the activity of the UmuDC proteins. The role of UmuC in this process is poorly understood, possibly because of the limited number of genetically characterized umuC mutants. To better understand the function of the UmuC protein in mutagenic DNA repair, we have isolated several novel(More)
In addition to its critical role in genetic recombination, the Escherichia coli RecA protein plays a pivotal role in SOS-induced mutagenesis. This role can be separated genetically into three steps: (i) depression of the SOS regulon by mediating the posttranslational cleavage of the LexA repressor, (ii) activation of UmuD'-like proteins by mediating(More)
replenishment of nutrients by fertiliser and oversowing, is topsoil nutrient decline over time accompanied by a decline in vegetation cover, and displacement of native by exotic species (Treskonova 1991), as has been demonstrated in other grasslands exposed to novel grazing by large herbivores (Milchunas and Lauenroth 1993). Although some researchers have(More)