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We study the problem of interdicting the arcs in a network in order to maximize the shortest s–t path length. " Interdiction " is an attack on an arc that destroys the arc or increases its effective length; there is a limited inter-diction budget. We formulate this bilevel, max–min problem as a mixed-integer program (MIP), which can be solved directly, but(More)
Alpha-synuclein (alphaS) is an abundant neuronal cytoplasmic protein implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its physiological function remains unknown. Consistent with its having structural motifs shared with class A1 apolipoproteins, alphaS can reversibly associate with membranes and help regulate membrane fatty acid composition. We previously(More)
While α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is mainly detected as a cytosolic protein, a portion of it is recovered bound to membranes. It is suggested that binding to membrane phospholipids controls α-Syn structure, physiology and pathogenesis. We aimed at investigating the role, of the positive charged lysine residues at the KTKEGV repeat motif, in mediating α-Syn(More)
Alpha-synuclein (alphaS) and beta-synuclein (betaS) are homologous proteins implicated in Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies. While alphaS is neurotoxic and its aggregation and deposition in Lewy bodies is related to neurodegeneration, betaS is considered as a potent inhibitor of alphaS aggregation and toxicity. No mechanism for the(More)
108 children from nursery school, first grade, and third grade were given 5 problems measuring the concept of time, in which they were required to judge and explain which of 2 partially overlapping events started first, which ended first, and which lasted for a longer time. 2 types of problems were used which presented time with and without the interference(More)
Vaccines have been used for over 200 years and are the most effective way of preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with infections. Like other drugs, vaccines can cause adverse events, but unlike conventional medicines, which are prescribed to people who are ill, vaccines are administered to healthy individuals, thus increasing the concern over(More)
The proteasome controls the concentrations of most proteins in eukaryotic cells. It recognizes its protein substrates through ubiquitin tags and initiates degradation at disordered regions within the substrate. Here we show that the proteasome has pronounced preferences for the amino acid sequence of the regions at which it initiates degradation.(More)
Alpha Synuclein (α-Syn) is a protein implicated in mechanisms of neuronal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). α-Syn is primarily a neuronal protein, however, its expression is found in various tumors including ovarian, colorectal and melanoma tumors. It has been hypothesized that neurodegeneration may share common mechanisms with oncogenesis. We(More)
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